Tropical monsoon climate

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  • ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE - I

    ClimateTropical monsoon

  • MAJOR CLIMATE TYPES:-1) Tropical Rainy2) Tropical wet/dry3) Tropical Monsoon4) Steppe (Semiarid)5) Desert (truly arid)6) Mediterranean7) Mid latitude wet/dry, mild winter8) Mid latitude rainy, mild winter9) Mid latitude wet/dry, cold winter10)Mid latitude rainy, cold winter,11)Tundra12)Ice Cap13)Highland (variable, mouintain)

    What Is Climate?The composite or generally prevailing weather conditions of a region, as temperature, air pressure, humidity, precipitation, sunshine, cloudiness, and winds, throughout the year, averaged over a series of years.

  • Tropical monsoon climates are most commonly found in South and Central America. However, there are sections of South Asia, Southeast Asia, Africa (particularly West and Central Africa),

    the Caribbean, Southwest India and North America that also feature this climate.

    Tropical monsoon climate

    The monsoon climate is found along the coastal regions of southwest India, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Southwestern Africa, French Guiana, and northeast and southeastern Brazil.

  • Tropical monsoon climateThis type of climate, most common in southern Asia and West Africa, results from the monsoon winds which change direction according to the seasons. This climate has a driest month (which nearly always occurs at or soon after the "winter" solstice for that side of the equator) with rainfall less than 60 mm, but more than (100 [total annual precipitation {mm}/25]).Examples:Conakry, GuineaChittagong, BangladeshMumbai, Maharashtra, IndiaMiami, Florida, United States.

    Characteristics of a tropical monsoon climatetwo dry seasons with a low rainfall:

    cool and dry (winter)

    hot and dry (summer)

    rainy season with very high rainfall

    high annual temperature (about 26C)

    seasonal distribution of rainfall

    high annual rainfall (more than 1800 mm)

    high humidity

  • NATURAL VEGETATION:Vegetation comprises of deciduous forest.Varies according to rainfall over 200 cm, evergreen forests, 100 cm to 200 cm, deciduous forests and less than 100 cm, tall grasses and thorny shrubs.Evergreen trees like: teak, rubber, bamboo etc are found.Deciduous forests like Sal, Acacia, Eucalyptus etc.Highly favorable for agriculture etc.

    WILDLIFE:Varieties of wildlife and existence of different species of animals, birds etc.Wild animals like leopard, tiger, monkeys etc are found in this region.Species of birds like peacocks, hornbill, parrot etc are found.Reptiles like snakes, alligator, crocodiles, lizards etc are found in this region.

    HUMAN SETTLEMENT:Dense population affect the agricultural practice of the people.Terrace farming, farms are small and people are forever land hungry.Suitable for the cultivation of cash crops like rice, maize, millet, sugarcane and jute.Besides agriculture, people are engaged in animal rearing, fishing etc.

  • Seasonal Variations In Bangladesh.Season is the climatic type, at any place, associated with a particular time of the year. The changeof season is mainly due to the change in angle of the earths axis in relation the position of the sunat a particular place.

    Bangladesh is called the land of six seasons (Sadaritu). It has a tropical climate because of itsphysical location. The Bangal calendar year is traditionally divided into six seasons:

    Grisma (summer)Barsa (rainy)Sarat (autumn)Memanta (late autumn)Shhit(Winter)Basanta (Spring).

    Seasons

    Seasons are chief characteristics of monsoon climate.The cool, dry season (October to February)

    Out blowing dry winds, the North-East Monsoon, bring little or no rain to the Indian sub-continent.However, a small amount of rain falls in Punjab from cyclonic sources (Western Disturbances: Frontal precipitation brought by jet streams) and this is vital for the survival of winter cereals.North-East Monsoons blowing over the Bay of Bengal acquires moisture and bring rains to the south-eastern tip of the peninsula at this time of the year (Nov-Dec).

  • The hot dry season (March to mid-June)

    The temperature rises sharply with the suns northward shift to the Tropic of Cancer.Day temperatures of 35 C are usual in central India and the mean temperature in Sind and south India may be as high as 44 C.Coastal districts are a little relieved by sea breezes. There is practically little rain. [Hailstorms (thunderstorms with hail) occurs here and there]

    The rainy season (mid-June to September)

    With the burst of the South-West Monsoon in mid-June, torrential downpours sweep across the country. Almost all the rain for the year falls within this rainy season.This pattern of concentrated heavy rainfall in summer is a characteristic feature of the Tropical Monsoon Climate.The Retreating Monsoon

    The amount and frequency of rain decreases towards the end of the rainy season. It retreats gradually southwards after mid-September until it leaves the continent altogether.The skies are clear again and the cool, dry season returns in October, with the out blowing North-East Monsoon.

  • Traditional House Forms

    Due to the heavy rainfall the traditional architecture of the Bangladesh continued there high plinth level housing to keep protected from the wild animal and flooded water.

  • Rural has its distinct characteristics as regards planning, use of materials and locations. Like urban architecture, rural architecture is also subject to change, but in Bangladesh rural architecture has clung to tradition. It has not really changed at all until recently. For centuries, rural architecture has been using locally available materials. It is only from the late nineteenth century that rural architecture began to change both structurally and in the use of housing materials.

    The elongated-linear type is built on high land along natural levees of rivers or water channels. However, even within and in proximity to linear settlements, there is dispersion which depends on the surrounding level of land.

  • Bamboo is the most widely used natural building material. Most indigenous architecture in the plain lands and hilly areas employ bamboo as one of the primary building materials. However, this is a diminishing natural resource, and this fact means that there is now a constraint in using it as a building material.

    In general terms, bamboo is available in two varieties: thick-walled and thin-walled. Thick-walled bamboo is used for structural members such as posts, roof rafters and purlins. Thin-walled bamboo is split into laths and woven by hand into a variety of stiff mats and screens used as walls and sometimes as roof cladding, as well as wall screens, panels and partitions. These porous, screen-type walls permit necessary ventilation and thermal relief. Besides bamboo, a variety of other organic materials are also utilized, such as jute sticks, reeds, timber or palm leaves.

  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Climatehttp://www.physicalgeography.net/fundamentals/7v.htmlhttp://www.earthonlinemedia.com/ebooks/tpe_3e/title_page.htmlhttp://en.banglapedia.org/index.php?title=Architecture,_Rural

    Bibliography

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Climatehttp://www.physicalgeography.net/fundamentals/7v.htmlhttp://www.earthonlinemedia.com/ebooks/tpe_3e/title_page.htmlhttp://en.banglapedia.org/index.php?title=Architecture,_Rural