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Tridex procumbens final

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1. Tridex procumbence Prepared by: Keshar Singh Solanki M.sc. (agri.) AGRONOMY N.M. College Of Agriculture, NAU , Navsari-396450 2. INDEX General Introduction Taxonomy Habitat Hosts/species affected Host plants/plants affected Prevention and control Uses 3. Tridex Procumbence LOCAL NAME :- GUJARAT:- Ek dandi INDIA: Bisalyakarmi, Mukkuthipoo English:- coat button(flower appearance) The taxonomic status of this species is clearly defined and universally accepted. The name Tridax refers to the three lobes of the ray flowers while procumbens refers to the prostrate, trailing habit of the stems (Holm et al., 1997). 4. Kingdom: Plantae Order: Asterales Family: Asteraceae Genus: Tridax Species: procumbens Binomial name Tridax procumbens L. Taxonomy OF EK DANDI 5. Tridax procumbens, commonly known as coat buttons or tridax daisy, is a species of flowering plant in the daisy family. It is best known as a widespread weed and pest plant. introduction It is native to the tropical Americas but it has been introduced to tropical, subtropical, and mild temperate regions worldwide. 6. The plant bears daisylike yellow-centered white or yellow flowers with three- toothed ray florets. The leaves are toothed and generally arrowhead-shaped. Its fruit is a hard achene covered with stiff hairs and having a feathery, plume like white pappus at one end. BOTANY 7. T. procumbens occurs in many environments but is particularly well adapted to coarse-textured soils in tropical regions (Holm et al., 1997). It is found at elevations from sea level to over 2000 m, often as a weed of roadsides, waste land, fallow land and crops. HABITAT 8. Holm et al. (1997) cite T. procumbens as a weed of 31 crops, however, this is almost certainly an underestimate. A wide range of crop types are infested, including cereals, fibers, legumes, pastures, tree crops and vegetables. Though not associated with waterlogged soils, it occurs in irrigated crops. Most crops have the potential to be infested with T. procumbens when grown within its habitat and geographical range. HOSTS/SPECIES AFFECTED 9. HOST PLANTS/PLANTS AFFECTED Glycine max (soybean) Main Gossypium (cotton) Main Psidium guajava (guava) Other Saccharum officinarum (sugarcane) Main Sesamum indicum (sesame) Other Solanum lycopersicum (tomato) Other Sorghum bicolor (sorghum) Main Theobroma cacao (cocoa) Other Triticum aestivum (wheat) Main Vigna unguiculata (cowpea) Other Zea mays (maize) Main Ziziphus mauritiana (jujube) Other 10. T. procumbens has been recorded at densities as high as 340,000 plants/ha in cassava (Doll et al., 1977), and it is as a competitor with crops that this species has its most serious impact. However, though very common as a weed in East Africa, Ivens (1989) does not consider it to be a serious problem. In India, it can interfere with the harvesting of jute (Holm et al., 1997). Das and Pal (1970) have shown that T. procumbens has an allelopathic effect on rice. 11. It is reported as a host to several crop pests, including root-knot nematodes in India (Upadhyay et al., 1977). an insect (Phalanta phalantha) which defoliates poplar trees in Nigeria (Akanbi, 1971). Red spider mite (Tetranychus telarius [Tetranychus urticae]) in India (Choudhury and Mukherjee, 1971). Macrophomina phaseolina in India (Singh et al., 1990) 12. sunflower yellow blotch umbravirus in Kenya (Theuri et al., 1987). Aphis citricola, a vector of citrus cistreza closterovirus in India (Naidu, 1980). T. procumbens is also an alternate host to the parasitic weed Orobanche in India (Sen, 1981). 13. ..CULTURAL CONTROL T. procumbens does not have the great powers of regeneration possessed by some other perennial Compositae and can be easily controlled by cultivation and hand pulling (Adams and Baker, 1962; Ivens, 1989). PREVENTION ANDCONTROL 14. CHEMICAL CONTROL Herbicides reported to give control of T. procumbens include ametryne, atrazine, 2,4-D and diuron (Terry, 1983), Avirosan (dimethametryn + piperophos) and oxadiazon in rice (Vernier, 1985), bromacil (Jayachandra and Menon, 1972), metobromuron + metolachlor in cowpea (Olifintoye and Adesiyun, 1989), MCPA and 2,4-D in sisal (Ivens, 1989) and oxyfluorfen in groundnut (Prasad et al., 1987). 15. T. procumbens can be used for wound healing (Udupa et al., 1991), staunching bleeding (Burkhill, 1985) and treatment of diarrhea (Burkhill, 1985; Shashi Gupta et al., 1993),backache (Burkhill, 1985) and bronchial catarrh (Ambasta, 1986). Extracts of this weed are reported to inhibit the growth of Culex quinquefasciatus larvae. USES Continue 16. Essential oils extracted from T. procumbens are reported to have insecticidal activity against Musca domestica, Culex quinquefasciatus, Dysdercus similis and Supella spp. (Pathak and Dixit, 1988). Aqueous extracts inhibit aflatoxin production by Aspergillus flavus (Ghewande and Nagaraj, 1987) and a petroleum ether extract from flowers protects cowpea seeds from damage by the bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus (Alam and Anis, 1987) USES Continue 17. T. procumbens is sometimes used as green feed for poultry in Nigeria (Egunjobi, 1969) Root galling by Meloidogyne incognita is reduced by powdered leaves of T. terrestris mixed in soil (Sharma and Tiagi, 1989) . There is evidence from laboratory tests that juvenile stages of this nematode are killed by leaf extracts (Mani and Chitra, 1989) USES 18. Animal feed, fodder, forage Fodder/animal feed Environmental Host of pest Materials Essential oils Pesticide Medicinal, pharmaceutical Source of medicine/pharmaceutical USES LIST

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