The Korean War Web

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  • 1. Cold War Case Study 1: The Korean War

2. Reasons for US Fear

  • China turns red (becomes Communist)
    • US saw China as mainstay of Asia
    • 1946-49: US pumped$ 2 billion to support Nationalists in their war against Commies
    • Nationalist China had veto vote in UN
  • CIA finds evidence of Soviet interference
    • Cominformhelped Reds in Malaya, Indonesia, Burma, Philippines and North Korea
  • US fears Red Tide sweeping Asia
    • US believed all Red govts took orders from Moscow (USSR) Never forget this point!
    • 1950: North Korea (Red) invades South Korea (US ally).Time for action!!!

Mao's speech of October 1, 1949 &The East Is Red 3. 20 thCentury Background

  • Japanese colony until 1945
  • USSR takes north, US takes south @ end of war
    • S installed Communist, one-party state underKim Il Sungin north
    • US installed anti-communist govt (non-democratic) underSyngman Rheein south
    • 1945 agreement to hold nation-wide elections abandoned as Cold War developed

Coldplay Korea The situation in Korea has sometimes been compared to the situation in Germany in1945.Explain: - how these situations were similar - How they were different 4. WAR!

  • North Korea Attacked
    • June 25, 1950 N K invaded S K
    • Sept: S K forces pushed back to southeast corner of peninsula, Pusan Perimeter

Family Feudtheme 5. US & UN Wade In

  • Truman responds
    • Sent advisers, supplies, warships
    • Pressured UN to take action
  • USSRs gaff
    • Russia would have vetoed UN action except
    • Russian ambassador was boycotting UN in protest of UN still recognizing defeated Nationalist Chinese govt (now on Taiwan) as legitimate govt of China while Communist Mao Zedong ruled China
    • US had vetoed Commie China recognition
    • US #1 financial contributor to UN (BIG INFLUENCE)
    • June 27, 1950: UN passed resolution
    • N K had just hacked off the world

Music from freeplay titledThe Story Explain how the Communist victory in China helped the USA to get the UN to intervene in North Korea 6. The bitter taste of defeat If both North & South Korea wanted reunification, why didnt it happen peacefully(Think of the larger context of the Cold War?20 words Why might the US be so unprepared for a limited war like Korea?In other words, what false sense of security might the US had?Why?30 words 7.

  • US led, US paid
    • 18 countries sent token troops
    • US by far biggest contributor
    • General Douglas MacArthur put in command
  • UN attacks!
    • Sept 1950: Amphibious invasion @ Inchon & counter-attack @ Pusan crushed NK forces
    • W/in weeks original UN mandate, drive NK from SK, achieved
  • What to do now?
    • Communist China (Mao Zedong), having just won civil war, warned UN not to cross into NK
    • Early Oct 1950: MacArthur, UN pushed through NK to Yalu river (border of China)
    • Truman & MacArthur clearly wanted to destroy communism in Korea

UN or USA Intervention? M*A*S*Htheme 8. UN attacks! How important was MacArthurs decision to invade Inchon in turning the war around to the UNs favor?Why?20 words 9. Profile:General Douglas MacArthur

    • Born 1880, father was successful army officer
    • Trained @ West Point, top military school
    • Fought in WWI, 13 medals for bravery
    • Became younger Colonel in US Army in (F)
    • 1930: Became Chief of Staff of Army
    • In WWII commanded allied forces in southern Pacific. Devised successful island-hopping campaign
    • 1945: Personally accepted (J) surrender
    • 1945-51 ruled (J) as commander of occupation
    • Bullying, no-nonsense style got things done
    • Sometimes annoyed political leaders by not following orders
    • 1950: @ age 70 given command of UN forces in Korea
    • 1951: Relieved of command for criticizing Trumans desire to limit war in Korea
    • Failed to get Republican nomination for 52 election
    • 1964: Died

The Chordettes performingMr. Sandman 10. What of China? What is Chinas misunderstanding of UN/US intentions, and how does this raise tensions between China and the UN forces? 20 words How does MacArthurs disobeying of orders set the stage for Chinese intervention in Korea?20 words Is MacArthur at fault or is Mao to blame for Chinese intervention? Explain.20 words 11. China Responds

  • Late Oct 1950: Chinese attack!
    • MacArthur surprised byChi-Comferocity
    • 200,000 strong Peoples Volunteers
    • Frozen Choson attacking in the other direction & other humiliations for UN/US
  • Stalemate
    • Jan 1951: UN/US regroups, pushedChi-Com& NK forces back to near original border
    • War settled into trench warfare a la WWI
  • Truman & MacArthur fall out
    • M wanted to use nukes, invade China
    • T wanted to negotiate a peace, avoid WWIII
    • March 51: M blatantly ignored UN orders & threatened China with the mushroom cloud
    • April 51: M wrote letter to senator slamming his C-in-C; wanted to unleash Taiwan
    • T, being C-in-C, removed & retired M

Only Carl Douglas can do this song,Kung-Fu Fighting .Tom Jones gives its a try and fails. 12. Chinese Red v s .UN Blue Should the UN/US have used nuclear weapons?List two reasons why they should, and two why they not.Think of geo-political factors, not just the countries actually fighting. If you were Harry S. Truman, would you use nukes?Why or why not.30 words 13. Activity: MacArthur Sacked!

  • General Douglas MacArthur, after serving the United States of America for the over 50 years, is sacked
  • Unfortunately, you are Douglas MacArthur
  • Write a letter to President Truman explaining your actions in the Korean War.Make sure to include the following points:
    • I believe in the policy of containment because
    • I also felt that I was fighting for the USA, not the UNO, because
    • I believed that the aim of the mission was more than simply to rescue South Korea.It was
    • Invading North Korea was right because
    • Furthermore, I do not believe the Chinese were such a great threat because

14. So.Why did we go to war??

  • Truman believed the Soviets were directing the attack by the North
  • This was a major test for the containment policy
  • If we did nothing a clear message would be sent
  • McCarthy thought we were soft on communism..Democrats couldnt have that
  • The war stimulated rearmament program
    • The defense budget went from 13.5 bill(1949) to 71 bill(1952
  • Assumed the commies could be stopped with limited cost and low death rate
  • Never assumed China would get involved

Gordan Lightfoot: Sundown 15. PSDs for Korean War

  • If the UN is ever going to do anything, this is the time, and if the UN cannot bring the crisis in Korea to an end then we might as well just wash up the United Nations and forget it.
    • American Senator Tom Connally speaking in 1950.He was a Republican and strongly anti-Communist
  • Korea is a symbol to the watching world.If we allow Korea to fall within the Soviet orbit, the world will feel we have lost another round in our match with the Soviet Union, and our prestige and the hopes of those who place their faith in us will suffer accordingly.
    • The US State Department, 1950

16. PSDs for the Korean War

  • "The Security Council,
    • "HAVING DETERMINED that the armed attack upon the Republic of Korea by forces from North Korea constitutes a breach of the peace,
    • "HAVING CALLED FOR an immediate cessation of hostilities, and