The Jewel in the Crown - Topic 3

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  • 1. 11/5/2009
    10.4 Causes and Consequences of British Imperialism in India
    1
    India: Crown Jewel of the British Empire
    Chapter 25 section 3

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New Topics
The Mughal Empire: 15261858
Company Rule: 1757-1858
The British Raj: 1858-1949
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I. The Mughal Empire
Brief Facts
Decline of the Empire
Rise of Company Rule
40 Years of Anarchy
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A. Brief Facts
Leaders traced back to decedents of Genghis Khan
One of the great Muslim empires.
Sometimes tolerant
Sometimes not
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B. Decline of the Empire
Aurangzeb, Last Great Mughal emperor dies in 1707.
Expanded Mughal borders
Devout Muslim, little tolerance towards other faiths
Left 17 potential heirs that fought amongst themselves
Mughal Empire declines
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C. Rise of Company Rule
Internal fighting resulted in decrease in stability
British East Indian Company emerges as a major player in politics
Had its own army
Had its own treaties and alliances with local rulers
Led by Robert Clive
Eventually the BEI company became the dominant political force
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II. Company Rule
Origins
Provider of peace
Regulatory Act of 1773
The Companies Empire
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A. Origins
Chartered in 1600 in order to increase trade in Asia.
Spices and tea
By 1700 established trade in Bombay, Calcutta and Madras.
Ports, factories and access to raw materials
Competed against French and Dutch
Independent of British government.
Far away from England
Focused on trade
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B. Provider of peace
Did maintain an army of Sepoys.
Hindu and Muslim Indians employed as troops.
Protect company interest and trade.
1757 Battle of Plassey
Robert Clive British commander
Wins region of Bengal and Bihar
BEI emerges as a political force.
Forms alliances with local princes.
Maintains stability.
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C. Regulatory Act of 1773.
"for the better management of the affairs of the East India Company as well in India as in Europe."
British government assumes indirect control of colony
Organized territories under a Governor General.
First Governor General Warren Hastings
Lord Cornwallis
Established a judicial system
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D. The companies Empire
Britain developed India
Roads, Railways, bridges, canals and dams.
Indians were taxed to pay for it.
BEI Co. focused on trade and profit
Raw materials
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III. The British Raj
Indian Rebellion of 1857
Government of India Act 1858
The Indian Civil Service
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A. Indian Rebellion of 1857
Hindu and Muslim Sepoy discovered animal fat was used in cartridges.
Some local princes support Sepoy.
Britain helps Company to put down revolt.
Sikhs and loyal Indian Princes also support British.
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Sepoy Troops
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B. Government of India Act 1858
Parliament takes control of BEI and India
Created the Indian Civil Service.
Professional administrators, not pirates
Prevent corruption and anarchy.
Organized tax Collection
Streamline and normalize taxes.
Improved the Sepoy and military.
Paramountcy was established.
Local Princes recognized British dominance, but stay in power (indirect rule)
Owed loyalty to British Crown
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D. The Indian Civil Service.
At first was professionally trained British citizens who governed India.
Eventually, educated Indians were used to administer India.
Comprised of Indian elite.
Resented 2nd class status.
The Indian National Congress
The Muslim League
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IV. Why Britain was successful
Improved Technology
Military
Communication
transportation
40 years of Anarchy weakened Indian leaders.
The Power of Peace
British rule did bring stability
Britain was united, India was not
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Terms
Mughal Empire
Maharajah
British East India Company
Robert Clive
Battle Of Plassey
Regulatory Act of 1773
Raj
Indian Rebellion of 1857
Sepoy
Government of India Act 1858
The Indian National Congress
The Muslim League