According to Krashen and colleagues (1982), language acquisition takes place most effectively when the input is meaningful and interesting to the learner.
Krashen popularized the idea of comprehensible input.
It is the amount or level of language that the student can fully understand, plus just a little more: i + 1.
The most important factor in the amount of language acquired by a learner is the amount of comprehensible input to which that learner is exposed.
Use of Language—Caretaker Speech
1. Slower rate of speech
2. More distinct pronunciation
3.Shorter, less complex sentences
4. More rephrasing and repetition
5. More frequent meaning checks
6. Use of gesture and visual reinforcement
7. Greater use of concrete referents
According to Merill Swain (1985), students acquire language most meaningfully when they also have the opportunity for comprehensible output.
Learners need to have a setting in which their attempts at communication are valued and shaped to make them acceptable and understandable, through communicative rather than grammatical means of correction.
Information from Brain Research
We use our emotions to tell us what is important to learn and what to remember.
The brain stores information based on functionality and meaningfulness.
Emotions drive attention.Attention drives learning and memory.Repetition is necessary but it requires
AFFECTIVE FILTER HYPOTHESIS
Stephen Krashen highlights the importance of emotions in the language learning process.
The filter is affected by: - motivation
- self - confidence - anxiety
TYPE 1 – CONCRETE LEARNERS
TYPE 3 – COMMUNICATIVE LEARNERS
TYPE 4 – AUTHORITY- ORIENTED LEARNERS
TYPE 2 – ANALYTICAL LEARNERS
What are the factors affecting second-
Input and Attributes in L2 Acquisition
INPUTQuantityAmount of language experienceAllocated instructional timeTime on taskQualityNature of instruction