Speaking skill presentation

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Text of Speaking skill presentation

  • 1. Speaking
    Definition

2. WhatisSpeaking?
Speech is the vocalized form of human communication
Speechproductiontakes places in real time and itis linear, i.e.utterancebyutterance.
Planningisseverlylimited, therefore, itisthehardest of allfourskills.
3. Coceptualization and Formulation
4. ! Note that:
In English, utterancestendtohave a two-partstructure:
Topic + comment
5. Articulation
Itinvolvesthe use of theorgans of speechto produce sounds.
Sounds are produced in a continuousstream, somesoundsmergewithothers. Handbag, bakedbeans
Continualchanges in loudness, pitch direction, tempo and pausingservetoorganizethesoundsintomeaninfulwords and utterances.
Proficientsspeakers produce 15 phonemes a second.
6. Self-monitoring & repair
Itis a processthathappensconcurrentlywiththestages of conceptualization, formulation and articulation.
Self-monitoringmayresult in a slowingdown, pausing and backtrackingorrephrasing of anutterance.
7. Automaticity
8. Mean that a speakersattentionalresources are thinlystreched
9. ! Note that:
Beingunderpressureortiredwillaffect a speakers performance
10. ! Note that:
Speakingislikeanyotherskillsuch as drivingorplaying a musical instrument: the more youpractice, the more likelyyou are tobeabletochunksmallunitsintolargerones.
11. Fluency
Isfluencytheabilitytospeakfast?
Its not onlyaboutspeed, butpausingisequallyimportant.
However, frequentpausingis a suresign of a struggling speaker.
Natural sounding pauses| are thosethatoccur at theontersection of clauses, | oraftergroupsof wordsthatforma meaningfulunit.|
12. Fluency
13. Interactionand turn-taking
Sometimes, a face-to-face dialogue isinvolved in speaking.
Turn-takingisnegotiatedbecausespeakers are familiar withthe rules and skills of turn-taking. Two rules are tobefollowed:

  • Long silences are tobeavoided

14. Listen whenotherspeakers are speaking