Spatial planning in Krasnoyarsk: opportunities and constraints

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Case-study performed by the international team of mid-career professionals during the summer school

Text of Spatial planning in Krasnoyarsk: opportunities and constraints

  • 1. Spatial planning in Krasnoyarsk: opportunities and constraints

2. Team: Egor Zadereev, SFU (Russia) supervisor Hanna Skryhan, BRU (Belarus) Irina Shilova, BRU (Belarus) Shailendra Kumar Mandal, NIT Patna (India) Viktar Kireyeu, CNIIKIWR (Belarus) Wanyu Shih, UNU-IAS (Japan) 3. Research question What are the weaknesses in existing governance of spatial planning in Krasnoyarsk city and how can they be mitigated? 4. Objectives 1. To understand existing problems associated with spatial planning. 2. To identify causes of existing problems. Natural constraints Infrastructure constraints Social context Historical legacies Institutional constraints 3. To explore potential governance mechanisms to mitigate these problems. 4. To develop governance strategies to improve spatial planning process in the city. 5. Methodology Case-study approach Problem analysis (STEEPL and SWOT analysis) Stakeholder analysis Institutional analysis Interviewing Participation observation Historical review Documentary analysis Field trip 6. Data and sources Legislative documents (federal, regional, local); Master plan and supplementary materials; Scheme of spatial planning of Krasnoyarsk krai; Web-pages of Krai Government, City Administration; Union of builders and developers; Interviews; Observations 7. List of interviews Person Time 1 Anton Shatalov, chief architect Krasnoyarskgrazhdanproekt 07-22-2013 2 Igor Veriovkin, deputy head of economical department of the city; Aleksander Tsaplin, deputy head of economical department of the city 07-23-2013 3 Anton Lukin, head of protect environmental office of municipal services department; Nataliya Morosova, deputy head of protect environmental office of municipal services department 07-23-2013 07-24-2013 4 Olga Kovalenko, head of office of spatial planning documents preparation and landuse rules (urban development department) 07-23-2013 5 Aleksander Gliskov, City Council deputy 07-23-2013 6 Yulia Ivanova, researcher of of Institute of Biophysics (Siberian Department of the Russian Academy of Sciences) 07-23-2013 7 Nikolai Diadechkin, architect, senior lecturer of SFU 07-23-2013 8 Yurii Podoprigora, former Executive Chief of the Builder Union of Krasnoyarsk Krai, member of Public Council of Krasnoyarsk Krai Ministry of construction and architecture 07-24-2013 8. Person Function 1 Anton Shatalov Architect: development of architectural image of the city. 2 Igor Veriovkin Aleksander Tsaplin Local officials: social-economical analysis of the city. Definition of socio-economic city policy direction and priority; definition of forms and methods of effective use of city potential and financial resources to purpose of city life activity normal working. Economical planning. 3 Anton Lukin Nataliya Morosova Local official: organize and control of street cleaning; Local official: collection, treatment and burial of solid waste. Definition of perfect landfills. 4 Olga Kovalenko Local official: development of architectural image of the city, development of target specification for master plan, land use control by architectural activity 5 Aleksander Gliskov Deputy, legislative authority 6 Yulia Ivanova Researcher: collection and processing of environmental information, mapping of environmental state of the city. 7 Nikolai Diadechkin Teaching, planer / architect. 8 Yurii Podoprigora Developer, member of civil self-organized group 9. Introduction: Historical and physical background 10. XVII-XVIII centuries The colonization of Siberia by Russians Major city functions and properties: to control the territory to establish and control trade with indigenous people and nomads to provide the flow of goods to metropolis The quality of life is not an issue City The Fortress Taiga (forest) (hunters, fisherman, in digenous people) Steppe Nomad tribes (Mongolians, Kyrgyz) Kazaks 2000 inhabitants, 200-300 houses, practically burned out in 1773 11. XIX century The Siberian Golden Fever, Trans-Siberian Railway City The Capital 30,000 inhabitants, 30 factories, the city was almost burned out in 1881 Major city functions and properties: the railway station (the integrity of the country) the capital of the Enisey Guberniya to control trade and resource extraction over the huge area to provide the flow of goods and money to metropolis - The quality of life was for the first time considered as an issue - City center is established 12. XX century (first half) The reallocation of industry during the WorldWar2 City The Factory 300,000 inhabitants, developed machinery and other industry Major city functions and properties: to enhance industrial production to provide the flow of industrial output to save country - The quality of life is not an issue - The districts around the factories are established (city is a batch of villages) - The quality of environment abruptly decreased 13. XX century (second half) Mega projects to extract Siberia City The Mega Factory 900,000 inhabitants, A lot of industry Major city functions and properties: to control, operate and support mega projects of natural resource extraction over the huge area to provide the flow of resources and industrial output to the country - The quality of life is minor issue - The city is a batch of districts around factories - The quality of environment continuous to decrease 14. Krasnoyarsk now is a mixture of different styles, different ages, different functions built-up areas Modern spatial structure of the city 15. Cottage housing Old Krasnoyarsk Modern elite cottage villages 16. Stalin and Hruschov housing 17. Modern housing blocks 18. Business, public and commercial spaces 19. Industrial areas 20. Infrastructural areas 21. Green areas 22. The legacy of the past Industrial zones along the banks of Enisey. Mixture of industrial and housing zones (legacy of WorldWar2) Can be used as a historical core Make the development more difficult and costly Territories to demolish completely and make a new good city A lot of old housing, ghetto, requires a lot of investments and planning to decrease patchiness constraintsopportunities Regular planning of city center and historical buildings (legacy of XIX century) 23. Separate districts (villages) around huge plants which make the city sprawling (legacy of XX century) Additional costs to support and develop transportation system and engineering infrastructure, to insure the social equity Huge areas with low density of built-up territories, a lot of free spaces which could be used for renovation and revitalization of housing and creation of a green network constraintsopportunities The Enisey river, geomorphological and relief conditions Can be used for landscape design and creation of city green network Limitation of the transportation system development 24. Problem analysis: Spatial planning in Krasnoyarsk: opportunities and constraints 25. Problem analysis STEEPL analysis (I) Social aspects Technological aspects Political aspects - positive growth of population (developing city); - high employability; - segregation of population based on incomes, social status, nationality and etc.; - boom of housing construction; - underdevelopment of social infrastructure; - absence of social equity; - growth of social / public involvement in societal processes, active citizenship in regard to city development; - corruption - outdated technologies and approaches in construction industry; - low level of energy efficiency in housing sector; - old systems of water supplying, sewerage, heating and other infrastructural elements; - narrow streets and problems with traffic; - mix of industrial and housing built-up areas; - a lot of old housing (baraki, hruschevki, brezhnevki); - geomorphological conditions and relief of the city, the Enisei river - capital of the region Krasnoayrsk krai; - good interrelations between krai and municipal political powers; - political stability; - city self-governmental bodies are not a part of state government; - city officials are accountable to local people, they are elected on the five years; - results of decision-making process and some legislative documents are accessible on the official web-page; - lobby of transnational companies and oligarchs in Krai government and parliament 26. Problem analysis STEEPL analysis (II) Economic aspects Environmental aspects Legislative aspects - investment attractiveness; - economic growth as the main goal of city development; - huge industrial potential; - natural resources including energy resources; - low costs of energy resources; - sale and lease of municipal lands, local taxes are main financial source for city budget; - outflow of finance (profit of industrial enterprises) to the transnational companies located in European part of Russia - high level of air pollution; - soil contamination with oil and point river pollution; - municipal solid waste; - location of industrial enterprises in the center of the city, lack of buffer zones between industries and housing in the center of Krasnoyarsk; - poor greenery in the center of Krasnoyarsk - sale and lease of municipal lands regulate by Land Code of RF, Rules of land use and urban development of Krasnoyarsk city; - urban development regulates by Urban development Code of RF, Rules of land use and urban development of Krasnoyarsk city, Norms for urban development of Krasnoyarsk city, Master plan; - building construction and infrastructure construction regulate by construction standards; - environmental protection in the city regulate by environmental legislation of RF 27. Problem analysis SWOT-analysis (I) STRENTH WEAKNESS Krasnoyarsk is a large industrial center in Siberia with huge industrial potential, high investment attractiveness and different opportunities for employability. City has huge potential for development, increasing of livability and competitiveness. Boom of housing constr