Soils, seeds

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Text of Soils, seeds

  • 1.Growing Soil

2. Seeds (GMO Seeds)These are seeds that have had their genetic make-up altered by replacing certain genes with genes from a totally different species, with the hope that the resulting plants will now have certain desirable characteristics. Hybrid-Hybrid seeds are developed by pollinating one type of plant with the pollen of another variety. The ospring seeds can have traits from either parent. The purpose of hybridization is to develop a new variety that has the best or most desirable traits of the two parent plants. Copyright 2013 Through Nana's Garden Gate 3. !Seeds open- pollinatedThese seeds are produced by crossing two parents from the same variety, so the ospring plants will be just like the parents. These can be from H1 hybrids or heirloom seeds. Depending of many factors, it is possible to have non-conforming plants in an open-pollinated variety. HeirloomThese are seeds from non-hybrid plants that have been grown for generations. Because they have specic traits that are desirable, they have survived. The seeds will be true to the parent plant. Many of these heirloom plants are being brought into favor today by gardeners who value keeping a wide genetic base available. Copyright 2013 Through Nana's Garden Gate 4. Seeds Pelleted seeds- coated with an layer of clay to make bigger, more uniform and easier to sow. Best for when seeding with a mechanical seeder Treated Seeds- these are seeds that have been coated with a chemical application of some sort to protect against disease or insects- there are some new organic 5. How to choose varieties What are other growers using trial several varieties Where is the seed company located? what does your market want regionally adapted seeds? 6. Regionally adapted varieties usually open-pollinated or heirloom varieties over the years have adapted to the climate Can be more resistant to cold, wet, or disease of area more prevalent in squashes, tomatoes, and grain crops 7. Seed Purity and size There are multiple grades and purity Go for the lowest seed count per lb Keep seeds cool and dry (use the 100 rule, temp and humidity should equal less than 100) 8. Seed companies we trust Johnnys High Mowing Osborne Jordans 9. Hot- Water treating seeds Why? Can destroy pathogens. Seed born Alternaria, Septoria, Black rot, Bacterial Spot What crops? Crucifers, Tomato, Pepper, Spinach Use specically designed vats at specic temperatures. NewsArticles/ HotWaterSeedTreatment.html 10. Richard de WildeHarmony Valley Farm 11. We always double our last few plantings 12. Looking at frost dates how early can you reasonably plant sensitive crops without heat? use a construction heater for those few days that it gets cold have rowcovers at the ready... 13. Frost-sensitive crops Tomatoes including cherriespepperseggplantcucumbers squashokrabeanspotatoesbasil 14. Hardy Crops ArugulaMesclunLettuce MixSpinachAsian greens CarrotsBeetsScallionsLeeksBrassicas 15. Pick an date... And then just keep on planting..... Get rid of the pre-conceived notions of when crops can be produced 16. Soil The best soil for growing is the soil that you currently have...... But... 17. Purchasing/Renting land 18. Soil type/quality Lighter soilsStone contentSoil history, conventionally farmed?Tract size 19. Soils Sandy loam to Sandy is ideal Too sandy can be hard to irrigate early and late Too wet can be ne but needs to bebedded up well.... good for spinach and long season crops as holds nutrients well 20. Micro Climates Occur on the top of a slope, by largebodies of water, in areas shielded by large natural barriers Can be 3-5 degrees warmer than surrounding areas Our granville eld is consistantly 3-4 degrees colder than the home farm 21. 5-88-15 22. Water Availability Water owWater consistencyWater QualityWater head?talk to the old-timers 23. Proximity to currently farmed property 2.5 miles 24. Vetting landowners Know your communitySeparate entrance idealmake sure they know you are farmingget a written agreement 25. Land security Spray buffersaccess for recreational vehicles and snowmobilesroads/ease of access for rufansease of fencing for deer/other pests 26. Lease/rent Land is expensivewe prefer 5 year rolling leasespay between $0-150 an acretax write-off for landownerSpell out everything in lease- no surprises. 27. Manchester Property 28. Manchester Property 14 acres of prime class 1 soilAs much water as we wantadjacent to other property5 year rolling leaserent is produce for the manufacturing employeesgood buffer zones 29. Web Soil Survey 30. Harrison Property Excellent, clean waterclass 2 soilscertiable immediately South slopelong term plansgood security 31. Matching crops to soils different crops have different soil requirements sweet potatoes loves very sandy soil carrots need deep friable soils spinach is ne with clay as long as it is bedded up Melons love dry fertile soil 32. Land and Soil prole Soil typeCropsAcresstays dry, early and late greens, melons, tomatoes, stony4Hamlin Silt loamroot crops, great for radishes, beets, carrots- no stones8Hartland sandy loamclass 1,general purpose, no stones4Vergennes Silty Claysomewhat heavy, winter squash, brassicas, spinach, beans5Hoosick Gravelly sandy LoamSweet potato heaven...1Bernardston-shaly silt loams 33. Weed Management Stale-bedding Flaming blind cultivation Between row vs in Row 34. bare fallow Period that nothing is grown on soil and itis kept tilled to destroy the weed seed bank bad for soil health usually for 4-6 weeks during peak summer useful to get rid of perenial weeds like quack-grass, nutsedge and johnson grass as well as annuals. 35. Flaming basics either used for stale seed bedding (before the crop is planted or blind cultivation (before the crop is up) idea situation: plant, wait till seeds aregerminating but not above the soil yet, ame, seeds come up in weed free bed ame midday when plants and ground are dry hot as possible 36. Parsnips just coming up 37. Blind Cultivation 38. Between Row cultivation 39. Fertility management Vegetable farming is not easy on the soil we want the best environment we can create to grow great vegetables Our goal is to create the BEST soil we can 40. How does one create great soil? Dont abuse it Compost Soil tests and Proper nutrients Cover crops good rotation 41. Why Compost? The great Recycler Builds Soil structure Aggregate formation (soil fungi) Drought Protection Just in time nutrient delivery Growth stimulator 42. C/N ratio you want a dirty compost pile (add a starter/activator) ideal Carbon/ Nitrogen ratio is 25:1 to 30:1 High N would be grass clippings, poultry manure, blood meal High C would be straw, sawdust, leaves 43. Compost ingredients Manure Wood chips spoiled hay vegetable scraps Whey eggshells 44. What not to put in compost domestic animal manure humanure large amounts of pine needles sprayed grass clippings (can contain 2,4 d) anything you cant handle..... 45. Using manures Stabilize it rst...Should not reek of ammonia... add carbon Watch your salt levels (especially in GH) Needs hot composted to get rid of disease and pathogens Stay away from pig manure - too many diseases (especially roundworms) 46. Composting methods Hot- Material is turned frequently to kill weedseeds, pathogens, is ready in a matter of weeks a month (temps up to 160 F) Cool- Material is piled and let sit, much less work but can take 6 months to 2 years. this method allows benecial bacteria to live. Windrow- Compost is placed in long , semi-circle shaped piles which are mechanically turned Aerated Static pile- Material piled and air forced through it to help it cook faster 47. 48. Importing soil fertility Easy way out can be more expensive in the long-run Safe can store great quantities of NPK Early season soils are too cold to utilize soil fertility easily 49. No supplemental nitrogen fertilizer in the greenhouse in the fall 50. Soil tests Take them!!! Best idea of what is going on down below Same time of year each year Get micronutrients tested every 2 years or so take them to a good lab 51. Nutrient Dense Dan Kittridge, Real Food Campaign Jerry Brunetti, Agri- Dynamics John Kemp, Advancing Eco Agriculture 52. Measuring Brix The higher the brix the healthier the plant Higher brix is a result of better mineralization of the soil For the best brix, nutrients are foliar applied during the season. 53. The Big 5 Nitrogen Phosphorous Potassium Sulfur Calcium 54. Micro-Nutrients MagnesiumCobaltCopperIron ManganeseMolybdenumZinc 55. Sources for Micronutrients Lancaster Ag Nutrient Density Supply Co. SeaAgri, INC 56. Soil management Squeeze test for dryness Dont compact by driving on wet bedding up in fall Some soils are just later Providing adequate drainage to heavier soils 57. Soil health resources Northeast cover crop handbook The real dirt Building soils for better crops Advanced biological farming 58. Growing Great Cover Crops 59. What is a cover crop? Any crop that is covering the soil 60. Yes, weeds can be a cover crop! 61. Cover crops vs green manures 62. Why Cover Crops? Benets soil: Stops erosion, sequesters carbon (organic matter), stabilizes soil moisture Manages Nutrients: adds or scavenges helps reduce weeds and ummoxes pests 63. Drawbacks Management establishment is when workload can be highest (spring and Fall) Weeds can establish in cover Uses soil moisture to grow (not a problem in irrigated vegetable land) difculty incorporating at end of year. 64. Types of Cover Crop Winter vs. Summer Legume vs non-legume Annual, Biennial, Perennial Intercropped Cover Crop Mixtures 65. Non-Legume Cover Crops Adds Organic matter Reduces erosion Suppresses weeds Large amounts of residue (can be tough to manage for next crop) Can tie up Nitrogen 66. Examples of NonLegume Crops Grasses (rye, oats, sorgum) Bras