Society 18th century women of the enlightenment, state of realm, images of famous women of science.
- 1. 18 th. Century Society
2. During the 18th. Century, the population of Europeincreased steadily:Between 1700 and 1800, it grew from about 95 millionpeople to about 146 million.This was due to scientific advances improvements in nutrition hygiene. a reduction in the number of epidemics. 3. DEMOGRAPHYDue to its high fertility, the population of the 18th century was veryyoung, with half of its workforce under twenty years old, in which over sixtyyears old were not reaching the tenth of the total. By gender, there used to be a slightfemale predominance. For example, in France, in 1740, theratio of -number of men per 100 womenwas 96.4. Born, however, more boys than girls.The greater intensity of mortalityaffects men over the life. Except for thestage of women fertility due to birth-relatedproblems. Women lived longer. 4. FAMILYSocio-economic changes of the eighteenthcentury, and its continuation in the nineteenth, consolidatedthe nuclear family.The diffusion of rural industry in theworld, providing employment and non-agriculturalwages, tended to crack thefoundations of complex families.Population growth, increasing thenumber of dependent unmarried siblings ofthe heir, and the inevitable need to finishfragmenting patrimonies.Nuclear family, made exclusively by the coupleand their unmarried children, who at marriageleft the parental home forming your ownAgainst them, the greater flexibility of thenuclear family: increased viability in the urbanenvironment, its assimilation of the spirit of business-everymarriage should start his ownhacienda made more adapted to moderntimes. 5. STATES OF REALMEuropean Society continued to be based on the States System butEnlightenment wanted to introduce reformsNobilityThe aristocracy played an important role in political life and institutions;continued to occupy the apex of the social pyramid and having huge economicresources and, more cultured, educated and refined, spread throughoutsociety a lifestyle that would last and would be imitated long after itsdisappearance as privileged class 6. ClergyThey would still having great influence in social and religious life.Enlightened Despots created laws to limit the influence of the clergy. Some Church lansand buildings were confiscated, and the number of convents was reduced. 7. BourgeoisieThe so-called Middle Class was inspired by the ideas of the Enlightenment such as thevalue of work and progress. 8. PeasantsThe peasants living conditions did not improve, even after agricultural reforms.However, de Domestic System enabled somo peasants to earn additional money.Domestic System, was an industry that combined rural character ofagricultural work with home textile manufacturing. It is not developed infactories. 9. Perceptions of Women There were other feminists prior to theEnlightenment, but not many Feminism began to gain momentum in theAge of Enlightenment. Why?1. Notions of rationalism & tolerance2. Print culture 10. Montesquieu Supported equality for women in society andwas sympathetic to the obstacles they faced(The Persian Letters) However, he held traditional beliefs as to amans dominance in marriage and family 11. Rousseaus Emile (1762) Men and women occupy separate spheresWorldlySphere =MenDomesticSphere =Women 12. Rousseau (cont.) Women should be educated to besubordinate to men there is little else fora woman to do but make herself pleasingto men 13. Rousseau (cont.) A womans purpose was to bear and raisechildren Weaker/inferior to men EXCEPT in theircapacity for feeling and giving love No political rights 14. Mary Wollstonecraft Mother of the feministmovement Born in London, England. Her first book, AVindication of the Rights ofWomen (1792) causedmuch controversy becauseshe stated that men andwomen were createdequal, but women receivedless education 15. A Vindication of the Rights of Women Celebrates the rationality of women Attacks the view of female education put forward byRousseau and countless others who regarded womenas weak and artificial and not capable of reasoningeffectively Rejects the education in dependency that Rousseauadvocated for them in Emile A woman must be intelligent in her own right, as shecannot assume that her husband will be intelligent! 16. She caused further controversy when shechose not to marry the father of her firstdaughter She did eventually marry William Godwin,another English philosophe Sadly, she died days after giving birth to theirdaughter, Mary Shelley (future author of thebook Frankenstein) 17. Salons 18. Salons Pleasure was not the objective of the Enlightenment salons The philosophes that had rejected the academy and theuniversity as their institutional bases for their work turned tothe Parisian salons to continue their conversations andpractices The salonnires served to listen attentively to the philosophesand fill in during the silences of the conversation, if needed A main purpose of the salons of Paris for the salonniresduring the Enlightenment was to satisfy the self-determinededucational needs of the women who started them 19. For the salonnires, the salon was a sociallyacceptable substitute for the formaleducation denied them 20. Salon Bleu Louis XV 21. Salon Jaune 22. Marie -Therese Geoffrin To many, her salonwas the premiersalon In her twenties, shebegan apprenticingat the salon of herneighbor, Madamede Tencin 23. Two innovations Geoffrin contributed to thesalon:1. Switched the traditional late night dinner to a1:00 dinner to fallow for an entire afternoon ofconversation2. Created a regular, weekly salon dinner schedule,with Monday assigned to the artists, Wednesdayfor the men of letters, and so forth 24. Geoffrin (cont.) Mme. G was a very generous woman as shewas quite wealthy and willing to share She often helped young authors strugglingto make ends meet and on Sundays shedidnt open her salon. Instead she puttogether large sums of money in little bagsto distribute among the poor 25. Madame Geoffrins Salon 26. In the 18th century girls from well offfamilies went to school but it was feltimportant for them to learn'accomplishments' like embroidery andmusic rather than academic subjects.Nevertheless there were a number offamous women scientists and writers in the18th century. 27. Maria Kirch (1670-1720) was a famous astronomer 28. Laura Bassi (1711-1778)became professor of anatomy at Bologna University in 1732 29. Maria Agnesi (1718-1799)was a famous mathematician 30. Emilie du Chatelet (1706-1749) was awoman physicist and mathematician 31. Caroline Herschel (1750-1848)was a famous astronomer 32. Madame Anne de Stael (1766-1817)was a famous writer 33. Catherine Macaulaywas a famous historian