The substrate paddy straw has recorded maximum yield of fresh mushroom.Among the substrates newspaper substrate exhibited highest biological efficiency of more than 95 per cent. Among the varieties CO (OM) 2 has recorded early spawn run and maximum yield performance.
Text of Performance of different substrates on growth, yield and biological efficiency of two oyster...
1. PERFORMANCE OF DIFFERENT SUBSTRATES ON GROWTH, YIELD AND BIOLOGICAL EFFICIENCY OF TWO OYSTER MUSHROOM VARIETIES project work R.SENTHIL KUMAR BSA 07-462 S.SENTHIL NATHAN BSA 07-463 M.SIVA CHANDRAN BSA 07-465 plant pathology unit department of plant protection agricultural college and research institute tamil nadu agricultural university killikulam 2010-11
2. Dr.M.Jaya sekhar, Ph.DProfessor of Plant Pathology,Department of Plant Protection,Agricultural college and Research Institute,Killikulam -628 252. Certificate This is to certify that the project report entitled Performance of differentsubstrates on growth, yield and biological efficiency of two oyster mushroom varietiessubmitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of B.Sc (Ag.)., under thecourse project work TAU416 to the Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore-3 is a recordof Bonafide research work carried out by Mr.R.Senthil kumar, Mr. S.Senthilnathan andMr.M.Siva chandran under my supervision and guidance.
3. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT Its gives us immense pleasure to express our deep sense of gratitude to ourproject guide Dr.M.Jayasekhar.Ph.D., Professor (Plant Pathology), Department of PlantProtection, for suggesting the problem, valuable guidance and help during the preparation of thisproject report.We are very much thankful to M.A.K.Pallai,Ph.D., Professor and Head and all thefaculty members in the Department of Plant Protection for their help in various levels.Our special thanks to our Dean Dr.K.Ganesan,Ph.D., AC&RI,Killikulam.
4. CONTENTS TITLES PAGE NO.INTRODUCTIONREVIEW OF LITERATUREMATERIALS AND METHODSRESULTSDISCUSSIONSUMMARYREFERENCES
5. LIST OF TABLESTABLE NO. TITLES PAGE NO. 1 Effect of different substrates on mycelia spread of variety MDU 2 on 15 days after spawn inoculation at five layers. 2 Effect of different substrates on mycelia spread of variety CO (OM) 2 on 15 days after spawn inoculation at five layers 3 Effect different substrates on number of days taken for complete spawn running (days of spawn running) 4 Effect of different substrates on number of days taken for first and second harvest 5 Effect of different substrates on yield and biological efficiency (B.E 5%) of mushroom varieties
6. LIST OF PLATESPLATE NO. TITLES 1 Cutting and drying of banana leaves 2 Drying of Guniea grass 3 Packing of different substrates 4 Recording observations 5 Spawn running on different substrates 6 Production of mushroom on different substrates 7 Best performing substrates
7. INTRODUCTION Mushrooms, also called white vegetables or boneless vegetarian meat contain ampleamounts of proteins, vitamins and fiber apart from having certain medicinal properties.Mushroom contains 20-35% protein (dry weight) which is higher than those of vegetables andfruits and is of superior quality. Mushrooms are now getting significant importance due to theirnutritional and medicinal value and today their cultivation is being done in about 100 countries.At present world production is estimated to be around 5 million tones and is ever increasing. Globally China leads in mushroom production. According to FAOSTAT Agriculturedatabase (2002), China produced 1,244,968 metric tons of various kinds of mushroomaccounting to about 42% of the world production. But, in India the quantity is negligible.Although processed mushrooms fetch good price in distant markets recent survey shows,consumers always prefer fresh mushrooms. The most well known species of Pleurotus are P.ostreatus, P.florida, P.cystidiosis,P.flabellatus, P.cornucopie, and P.sajor-caju.Sivaprakasam (1986) from Tamil NaduAgricultural University,Coimbatore released the first oyster mushroom variety in thecountry,CO1 (P.citrinopileatus) for commercial production. The large amount of agricultural wastes and congenial climatic conditions providetremendous scope for oyster mushroom cultivation. Its cultivation is a proposition forbioconvential of lingo cellulosic wastes into edible protein. Kumar et al. 2004 reported thesuccessful cultivation of Pleurotus sp on conventional substrates sufficiently available which arenot utilized properly. These wastes are neither used as fodder nor as other useful material exceptas fuel. Traditionally the oyster (Pleurtus sajor-caju) is largely grown in paddy and wheat straw
8. which is become costlier because of its several other uses. The above conditions call for asearch of certain alternative materials which should be available in sufficient quality throughoutthe year at a relatively cheaper price. Keeping in view the present investigation was carried outto search out non-conventional agricultural waste for the successful cultivation of oystermushroom.
9. REVIEW OF LITERATURE The cultivated mushrooms mostly belong to the Agaricaceae of class Basidiomycetes.Mushrooms may be saprophytic, parasitic and mycorrhizal in their mode of livings. Most of thecultivated mushrooms are saprophytic; they feed on organic matter which has already beenmanufactured by plants or animals. In nature they grow on fallen leaves, animal droppings andstumps of dead wood. In nature mushrooms grow wild in every country from snowy mountainsto sandy deserts on all types of soils, pastures, forests, cultivated fields of water lands. Theyappear in all seasons, chiefly during the rainy weather, whenever organic matter or itsdecomposition products are available (Poppe, 1995). Mushroom a food of high quality, flavourand nutrition value have high content of protein, low content of fat[4%], vitamins (B1,B2,C,niacin,biotin etc),minerals [P, Na ,K, Ca] and high contents of fibers and carbohydrates[Souci, et al.,1989].Varieties of oyster mushroom: Other oyster mushroom varieties like CO1 (P.citrinopileatus), APK1 (P.eous), MDU 1(P.djamor). Ooty 1 (P.ostreatus), MDU 2 (P.flabellatus) and CO (OM) 2 (Hypsizygus ulmarius)were also introduced for commercial production from TNAU,Coimbatore from time to time.Substrates for mushrooms: Mushroom can be cultivated with in a wide range of temperatures on different naturalresources and agricultural wastes. The cultivation of oyster mushrooms in simple as compared toother varieties. Five species of Pleurotus cultivated on cotton seed hulls, wheat, rice or maizestraw are different in composition of crude protein. Among the substrates, rice straw was best formushrooms growth (Ruhul Amin, et al., 2007). Oyster mushrooms can be grown on most of the
10. agricultural wastes of which sugarcane bagasse proved to be the best substrate for sporophoreproduction (Khan and Ali, 1982).Effect on cereals straw substrate:Pleurotus sajor- caju can be grown on wheat straw, paddy straw, stalks and leaves of sorghum,pearl, millet and maize for commercial cultivation. The cotton stalks and leaves induced highyield (2361 gm/10 kg substrate) followed by sorghum stalk and leaves (1463 gm/10 kg substrate)of oyster mushroom (Patil et.al., 2008). Four stains of oyster mushroom on cotton waste showedfastest spawn running in blue gray station of P.ostreatus with highest yield in first and third flushwhile P. sajor-caju gave highest yield in first and third flush while P.sajor- caju gave highestyield in second flush. The cultivation of P.sajor-caju on bagasse medium showed vigorousgrowth and highest yield of 174 Kg medium than wheat straw and wheat bran.Effect on banana leaves and pseudostems: Bhavani and Nair (1989) reported that Banana leaves, dried 1.45% N, very productive inbulk for Pleurotus or in combination for volvariella and banana pseudostems, chopped gavebetter results for Pleurtus compared to sawdust or rice strawEffect on wild grasses: Wild grasses contain lignin, hemicelluloses, and cellulose should be dried for before assubstrate Pleurotous sapidus (Kiran and Jandaik 1989).Effect on newspaper:
11. Newspaper, paper bulb by-product and paper waste when combined with rice bran or withsaw dust for Pleurotus cultivation