Pedagogical grammar occupies a middle ground between the areas of prescriptive and descriptive grammar. Simply put, prescriptive grammar sets forth rules about how language should be used correctly. It prescribes language the way a doctor prescribes medicine by saying what ought to be done. Descriptive grammar, on the other hand, describes how speakers actually use language without consideration for whether it conforms to "proper" rules. Since the goal of pedagogical grammar is to help non-native speakers achieve fluency, some of both approaches is necessary. In order for a language learner to speak well, most of his or her utterances will need to conform to the grammatical rules set forth in prescriptive grammar. On the other hand, it helps to understand the way native speakers actually use language; through descriptive grammar. This is necessary for the learner to make sense of slang or other non-standard ways of speaking, such as ending sentences with prepositions.
2. Pedagogical (Merriam-Webster Dictionary) relating to, or befitting a teacher or education Pedagogical / Pedagogy (macmillandictionary.com) relating to educational methods and principles Pedagogue (www.etymonline.com) late 14c., "schoolmaster, teacher," from Old French pedagoge "teacher of children" (14c.), from Latin paedagogus, from Greek paidagogos "slave who escorts boys to school and generally supervises them," later "a teacher," from pais (genitive paidos) "child" from agein "to lead" 3. GRAMMAR (macmillandictionary.com) The set of rules that describe the structure of a language and control the way that sentence are formed 4. Odlin, T., (ed.) Perspectives on Pedagogical Grammar, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994) A pedagogical grammar is a modern approach in linguistics intended to aid in teaching an additional language. 5. This method of teaching is divided into the descriptive: grammatical analysis, and the prescriptive: the articulation of a set of rules. Following an analysis of the context in which it is to be used, one grammatical form or arrangement of words will be determined to be the most appropriate. Pedagogical grammars typically require rules that are definite, coherent, nontechnical, cumulative and heuristic. As the rules themselves accumulate, an axiomatic system is formed between the two languages that should then enable a native speaker of the first to learn the second. 6. A pedagogic grammar is a description of how to use the grammar of a language to communicate, for people wanting to learn the target language. It can be compared with a reference grammar, which just describes the grammar of the language. Pedagogic grammars contain assumptions about how learners learn, follow certain linguistic theories in their descriptions, and are written for a specific target audience.Example How English Works and Grammar in Use are pedagogic grammar books, as they help learners use the grammar of English for communication.In the classroom Learners can be asked to compare different explanations of a language point from different grammars. This allows learners to think about grammar and its role in communication. 7. The concept of pedagogic grammar (PG) has been discussed for over thirty years, and there have been several attempts to summarize the data in the field and to outline the perspectives. 8. The theory of PG may include the following components:1) pedagogic grammar itself; 2) the psychological grammar pedagogic grammar relationship; 3) the linguistic grammar pedagogic grammar relationship; 4) the teaching material pedagogic grammar relationship; 5) the implementation of pedagogic grammar in actual teaching 9. PSYCHOLOGICAL GRAMMAR PEDAGOGIC GRAMMARTEACHING PROGRESSLINGUISTIC GRAMMARTEACHING MATERIALAs it follows from Fig. 1, pedagogic grammar plays the role of filter between psychological grammar and linguistic grammar, on the one hand, and the Teaching progress, on the other. 10. PSYCHOLOGICAL GRAMMAR PEDAGOGIC GRAMMARTEACHING MATERIALTEACHING PROGRESSLINGUISTIC GRAMMAR 11. PG is a pedagogic description of a language aimed to improve the control of the acquisition/process. PG incorporates all grammar actions to be acquired (with the description of constituent operations) as well as the pedagogic information concerning these actions. 12. The Implementation of Pedagogic Grammar in the Teaching Process. The best results are achieved on the basis of a maximum parallel use of both acquisition and learning. The efficiency of acquisition depends on: 1) the amount of input; 2) affective characteristics in the classroom; 3) the amount of intake; 4) students motivation, initiative and intensity of training in real-life situations; 5) speech patterns as the only type of pedagogic information should meet the following requirements: 13. a) provide orientation about the topic of communication; b) provide for the visual perception of the object of communication; c) model the corresponding speech acts; d) control the environment at the L+1 level (where L is the actual level of the students). 14. The efficiency of learning is highest when: a) grammar sub skills are developed along the materialized-to-mental-forms guidelines; b) the students complete orientation has been provided for; c) the students use the materialized type of pedagogic information; d) exercises start immediately after the orientation; e) involuntary memorization. 15. What is Pedagogical Grammar? -Adopted fromredcrimson07 Uploaded March 22,2012 16. ReneDriven refers to pedagogical grammar as a cover form for any learner or teacheroriented description or presentation of foreign language rule complexes with the aim of promoting and guiding learning in the acquisition of that language. 17. Corder refers to replace the term pedagogical grammar with the pedagogy of grammar, points out that the term does not just imply to the implicit treatment of grammar. Bausch pedagogical grammar results from the consolidation and integration of the findings and insights of these areas: LINGUISTICS, LANGUAGE PEDAGOGY and the FIELD OF APPLICATION (foreign language teaching) 18. Grammar Pedagogical GrammarLearning GrammarDescriptive GrammarTeaching Reference Grammar GrammarIntegrated in textbooksSchool grammarindependentUniversity grammar Users grammarFig.1 Types of GrammarLinguistic Grammar Immediate constituentTransformational generative Case grammar Communicative grammar 19. On Descriptive Grammar the focus is on the code, linguistic data is described to reveal patterns of arrangement of the different grammatical categoriesOn Pedagogical Grammar the focus is on how grammatical items may be made more learnable or teachable 20. Pedagogical Grammar is considered a hybrid grammar because it draws from and synthesizes the other conceptions of grammar choosing that which would best suit the grammatical item being taught. Fig. 2 shows the four conception of Grammar which pedagogical grammar draws from 21. 1. Grammar as prescription -> focuses on rules, that is, the dos and dont of grammatical construction Ex. 22. Grammar as prescriptionGrammar as descriptionPedagogical grammarGrammar as an internalized systemGrammar as a set of axiomsFig. 2 Pedagogical Grammar: A hybrid grammar 23. 2. Grammar as description -> focuses on the sequence or word order to become clearer Ex. teaching of structure of modificationA. Adverbs of place, manner and time [Adverb of time + sentence + adverb of place, manner]Or [Sentence + adverb of manner, place, time] 24. B. Mid-position or frequency adverbs 1. Subject } + verb to be} + mid-position adverb} + rest of the sentence Ex. He is often late. 2. Subject} + mid-position adverb} + action verb} + rest of the sentence. Ex. He often comes late. 3. Subject} + helping verb} + mid-position adverb} + main verb} + rest of the sentence Ex. He has often arrived late. 25. 3. Grammar as an internalized system -> The innate mental structures which a native speaker has of his language which guides his actual use of the language and enables him to sense what sounds correct and what seems wrong even if he cannot explain why. Examples: if-real conditional clause 26. Native speaker: If he comes early, we will join you. Filipino learner: If he will come early, we will join you. The approach used is consciousness raising to make the second language learner realize what the native speaker knows instinctively. 27. 4. Grammar as a set of axioms. -> One such rule is that which pertains to the prepositional phrase. [PP-> P NP (PP) -> The rule stipulates that a prepositional phrase may be re-written as a preposition followed by a noun phrase which may in turn be followed by any number of other prepositional phrases. 28. EXPANSIONS PP-> P NP (PP)1.PNPPNPTheres a tree in my garden. PNP2.Theres a nest in a tree in my garden.3.P NP P NP P NP Theres an egg in a nest in a tree in my garden.4.PNPPNPPTheres an embryo in an egg in a nest inNPPNPa tree in my garden 29. Given these grammatical items, which approach to grammar (prescription, description, innate system or axiomatic system), would each item land itself to render it more learnable and teachable?1. Structure of Complementation [S- TV- DO] I called my friend. [S- TV- DO- OC] I called my friend a real gem. 2. Structure of Modification (placement of singleword adjectival modifier) I bought three round brown leather keychains. 30. 3. Parallel constructions Every living creature: the birds of the air, the animals on the land and the fish in the deep, deserves its place in the sun. 4. Agreement in number Neither the teacher nor the students were hurt. Neither the students nor the teacher was hurt. Rice and fish is all I had for lunch. Rice and fish are expensive. 5. Response to negative question Q: Youre not coming around tomorrow, are you? A: No, Im not. (Some Filipino learners would say Yes, Im not coming.) 31. 6. Response to the question, Do you mind? Some Filipino learners say Sure, go ahead, even when they mean Of course not. Go right ahead. 7. Definition a. Full form [Term to be defined + verb to be + General Class + relative pronoun + specific characteristics]Ex. Zoology is the study which is concerned with animal life. b. Reduced form [Term to be defined + verb to be + Gen. Class + specific characteristic]Ex. Zoology is the study concerned with animal life. 32. 8. * Shall we go to the living room? (to signal an invitation) * Shall I go to the living room? (To ask information as to what one is to do)