Ocean Circulation

Embed Size (px)

DESCRIPTION

 

Text of Ocean Circulation

  • 1. Ocean Circulation

2. Salinity

  • Amount of salts and minerals dissolved in water
  • Varies throughout
  • Average = 35 ppt or 3.5%

3. Density

  • Salt water is more dense than fresh water
  • Cold water is more dense than warm water
  • Pycnocline area of rapid increase in density with depth

4. Temperature

  • Warm water expands and stays above colder water
  • Only fresh water evaporates or freezes. The salt is left behind.
  • Thermocline area of rapid decrease in temperature as depth increases

5. Pressure

  • Increases with depth
  • Every 33 feet = 1 atmosphere

6. Waves

  • Wind speed
  • Wind duration
  • Fetch (distance over which wind blows)

7. 8. Surface Circulation

  • Controlled by temperature, wind, and coriolis effect

9. 10. 11. 12. Currents Affect Climate

  • Warm currents make warmer climates
  • California vs. East Coast
  • Gulf Stream warms Europe

13. Climate Affects Currents

  • Global warming & cooling can alter currents
  • Changes in precipitation or evaporation can change salinity and density

14. Deep Ocean Currents

  • Controlled by density differences and the pull of the moon

15. Circulation Cells Not Convection!

  • Heat source is above the water not below

16. 17. 18. Water Masses

  • Distinctive combinations of temperature and salinity

19. Upwelling 20.