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Text of Notable alwd bluebook differences third ed
1. Notable Differences between ALWD (3d) and Bluebook (18th) . . . for law review members and research assistants Copyright 2003, 2006. Darby Dickerson. Permission given to use for educational purposes.
2. Tips for Using the Bluebook
Use the Quick Reference: Law Review Footnotes inside the front cover.
Do not use the Quick Reference in the back .
Use the index to find pertinent rules.
Consult ALWD if you need clarification; most rules are similar.
3. Signals (BB 1.2; ALWD 44)
The definitions of signals in ALWD and the Bluebook are very similar, but read them carefully.
Under Bluebook form:
Insert a comma whenever e.g., is used (ALWD does not use the comma).
When you move from one category of signal to another, insert a period (in ALWD, you would use semicolons).
4. Order of Authorities (BB 1.4; ALWD 45)
Federal district courts: Treat as one court and put in reverse chronological order. (In ALWD, courts are first ordered alphabetically, then in reverse chronological order.)
Federal courts of appeals: Treat as one court and put in reverse chronological order. (In ALWD, courts are first ordered by ordinal, then in reverse chronological order.)
5. Related Authority (BB 1.6; ALWD 46)
Append related authority with an italicized explanatory phrase (in ALWD, related authority is included within a parenthetical and is not italicized), unless a particular primary source discusses, quotes, cites, or otherwise mentions the source, then include the information in an explanatory parenthetical like ALWD:
S TATUTE , construed in Case One
Case One ( construing S TATUTE )
6. Typeface: Small caps (BB 2; ALWD 1)
The Bluebook uses large and small capital letters for the following sources (ALWD does not use this typeface at all, but explains it in Rule 23):
Constitutions: Abbreviations (CAL. CONST.)
Statutes: Statutory abbreviation (FLA. STAT.)
Books: Author names and titles (AUTHOR, TITLE OF BOOK 55 56 (2005).
Periodicals: Periodical abbreviation (MICH. L. REV.)
Restatements: Title (RESTATEMENT (SECOND) OF TORTS)
7. Typeface: Cases (BB 2; ALWD 1)
Full case names in textual sentences: italicize
Full case names in citations: regular type; no italics (exception: procedural phrases)
Short case names in the text and citations: italicize
In ALWD, case names are always italicized.
8. Volume numbers (BB 3.1; ALWD 22)
Under the Bluebook, place the volume number for a book before the authors name:
1 A UTHOR N AME , B OOK T ITLE 105 (2005).
In ALWD, the volume appears after the book title, like other subdivisions:
Author Name, Book Title vol. 1, 105 (Publisher name 2005).
9. Page Spans (BB 3.1; ALWD 5)
Under the Bluebook, drop repetitious digits, but always retain two digits on the right hand side:
Note: This rule does not apply to section or paragraph numbers.
ALWD gives the same option and the option to retain all digits
10. Internal Cross-References (BB 3.6; ALWD 10)
The rules are very similar, but under the Bluebook, spell out note or Part:
BB: Infra note 45 and accompanying text.
ALWD: Infra n. 45 and accompanying text.
11. Id. (BB 4.1; ALWD 11.3)
The rules are very similar; however, the Bluebook has a 5 id . rule that ALWD does not.
Under the Bluebook, do not use id. or another short form unless it can be readily found in one of the preceding five footnotes (emphasis in original)
Bluebook Rules 10.9 and 12.9 contain this 5 footnote rule.
12. Quotations (BB 5; ALWD 47)
The Bluebook has a stricter rule and says to block indent when fifty or more words are quoted.
ALWD says to block indent when the quotation spans more than four typed lines of text or exceeds fifty words .
13. Abbreviations (BB 6.1; ALWD 2)
The spacing rules are virtually identical.
The lists of specific abbreviations in tables differ. The Bluebook sometimes uses a format that includes an apostrophe.
BB examples ALWD examples
14. Capitalization (BB 8; ALWD 3)
Most capitalization rules are consistent.
Two differences to watch out for:
Under the Bluebook, do not capitalize prepositions unless they are five or more letters long .
Under the Bluebook, do not capitalize Court when referring to a state supreme court.
15. Cases (BB 10; ALWD 12)
Remember the typeface differences discussed earlier.
Remember the differences in abbreviations for words in case names.
Under the Bluebook, you may, but are not required, to note the district or department for state intermediate courts (Rule 10.4(b)).
ALWD requires the district or department to be noted.
16. Cases - continued
Under Bluebook Rule 10.5, [w]hen citing a case with several different decisions in the same year, include the year only with the last-cited decision in that year.
So, if the F. Supp. decision and the F.2d decision were both 2005, include the date only with the F.2d decision.
Under ALWD, include the date for each decision, even if the dates are the same.
17. Cases on Electronic Databases (BB 18.1.1; ALWD 12.12)
Under the Bluebook, include the docket number as part of the citation:
Case X, No. ABC-123, 2003 U.S. App. LEXIS 789, at *2 (3d Cir. Jan. 10, 2003).
ALWD deletes the document number.
18. Constitutions (BB 11; ALWD 13)
The forms are identical, except for typeface.
BB: U.S. C ONST . art I.
ALWD: U.S. Const. art. I.
19. Restatements (BB 12.8.5; ALWD 27)
The forms are virtually identical, except for typeface.
BB: R ESTATEMENT (T HIRD ) OF U NFAIR C OMPETITION 3 (1995).
ALWD: Restatement (Third) of Unfair Competition 3 (1995).