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  • 1. TASTE OF MODERNITY: Sufism, Salafiyya,and Arabism in LateOttoman Damascus Itzchak Weismann BRILL
  • 2. TASTE OF MODERNITY
  • 3. ISLAMIC HISTORYAND CIVILIZATION STUDIES AND TEXTS edited by WADAD KADI VOLUME 34
  • 4. TASTE OFMODERNITYSufism, Salafiyya, and Arabism in Late Ottoman Damascus BY ITZCHAK WEISMANN BRILL LEIDEN BOSTON KLN 2001
  • 5. This book is printed on acid-free paper. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication DataWeismann, Itzchak. Taste of Modernity : Sufism, Salafiyya, and Arabism in Late Ottoman Damascus / by Itzchak Weismann. p. cm. (Islamic history and civilization. Studies and texts, ISSN 0929-2403 ; v. 34) Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 9004119086(alk. paper) 1. SalafyahSyria. 2. SufismSyria. 3.IslamSyria. I. Title II. Series. BP195.S18 W44 2000 297.09569109034dc21 00- 040337 CIP Die Deutsche Bibliothek CIP-EinheitsaufnahmeWeismann, Itzchak :Taste of modernity : Sufism, Salafiyya, and Arabism in Late OttomanDamascus /by Itzchak Weismann. Leiden ; Boston ; Kln : Brill, 2000 (Islamic history and civilization ; Vol. 34) ISBN 9004119086 ISSN 0929-2403 ISBN 90 04 11908 6 Copyright 2001 by Koninklijke Brill nv, Leiden, The Netherlands All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, translated, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without prior written permission from the publisher. Authorization to photocopy items for internal or personal use is granted by Brill provided that the appropriate fees are paid directly to The Copyright Clearance Center, 222 Rosewood Drive, Suite 910 Danvers MA 01923, USA. Fees are subject to change. printed in the netherlands
  • 6. contents vTo Gerda for your enduranceAnd to Tomer, Maya, and Shay
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  • 8. contents viiThis is the gravest danger that to-day threatens civilization: Stateintervention; the absorption of all spontaneous social effort by theState, that is to say, of spontaneous historical action, which in thelong run sustains, nourishes, and impels human destinies.The mass-man does in fact believe that he is the State, and he willtend more and more to set its machinery working on whatsoeverpretext, to crush beneath it any creative minority which disturbs itdisturbs it in any order of things: in politics, in ideas, in industry.Jose Ortega Y Gasset. The Revolt of the Masses.Y ayyuh alladhna man a# Allh wa-a# al-rasl wa-l al-amr minkum.O believers, obey God, and obey the Messenger and those in author-ity among you.Qur"an, al-Nis" (4), 59.
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  • 10. contents ix CONTENTSAcknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xiIntroduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1Part One: In Support of the SultanThe Naqshbandiyya- Khlidiyya . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21Chapter 1. The Mystical Praxis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 The Sufi Roots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 The Organizational Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 The Affinity to Orthodoxy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 Involvement in Social and Political Affairs . . . . . . . . . . . 45Chapter 2. Shaykh Khlids Legacy (1823-1832) . . . . . . . . . 56 The Support of the Local #Ulama . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 Ibn #$bidns Reformism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 The Collapse of the Succession Arrangement . . . . . . . . 75 Sultan Mamd IIs Turn against the Khlidiyya . . . . . 78Chapter 3. Fragmentation during the Reform Era (1832-1880) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 Leadership and Power Base under the Egyptian Rule 84 The Split under the Aegis of the Early Tanzimat Regime . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 The rise of the New Ottoman Tendency . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96 The Lapse during the Late Tanzimat Period . . . . . . . . . 100Chapter 4. The Struggle for Supremacy under the Auto- cratic Regimes (1880-1918) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105 Challenging the Leadership under the amdian Regime . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 The Decline of the Local Branch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117 The Consolidation of the OttomanOrthodox Tendency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123 In the Service of the Committee for Union and Progress 132
  • 11. x contentsPart Two: Facing the WestThe Akbariyya . . . . . . . . . . . . 141Chapter 5. The Theosophical Experience . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155 The Rationalist Challenge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157 The Fundamentals of Sufi Thought . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162 The Criticism of Traditional Learning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175 A Bridge to the Modern World . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181Chapter 6. Amir #Abd al-Qdir al-Jaz"irs Circle (1855-1883) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193 The Algerian Emigration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195 The Attachment of the NaqshbandKhlid #Ulama . . 204 The Rise of the Local Tendency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 214 Antinomianism on the Edge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219Chapter 7. Local Renaissance under the Centralizing Regimes (1883-1918) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225 Fostering the Local Heritage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227 The Contribution of the Algerian Community . . . . . . . 234 The Withdrawal of the LocalReformist Tendency . . 242 Aligning with the Sultans Servants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 250Part Three: Resistance to the Emerging Modern State The Salafiyya . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 261Chapter 8. Remolding Religion and Identity under the Populist Regimes (1883-1918) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 273 Returning to the Model of the Forefathers . . . . . . . . . . 275 Reviving the Arabic Heritage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 282 Jaml al-Dn al-Qsims Reformism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 291 The Suppression by the Young Turk Regime . . . . . . . . 299Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 305Select Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 317Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .