- 1. Narrative the return!!
LO: To further understand the concept/theory
of Narrative in films!
2. Name one of the earliest forms in which human conveyed narratives 
Name the three stages of Todorovs theory of narratives? 
According to Syd Field how many ACTS do all good scripts have? 
Which key note is Syd Fields 2nd Act comprised of? 
Also according to Field, what happens to all subplots in the 3rd Act? 
Name the 3 types of Narrative Pleasure? 
Starter exercise that memory
3. Cave Paintings, Egyptian Hieroglyphics, Folktales, Fairytales. 
Stable Equilibrium, Disruption of Equilibrium & Reordered Equilibrium 
They are resolved 
Gratification, Surprise, Suspense. 
Total = 10
EXPOSITION the big reveal!
4. Who the narrator? You the narrator? Me the narrator? Real narrator stand up!
The problem for any reader of a narrative is:
who is the narrator, who is telling the story.
In Film, the narrators role is often fulfilled by the filmmakers who position themselves outside the story& decide what to include, what to exclude & in what order to present the events.
Sometimes the narrator is positioned as one of the characters in the story itself so then the reader sees events unfold from acertain perspective, see other characters from their pov.
The question then arises how reliable is the narrator?Film with unreliable narrators?
Why do we as readers of a film even care who the narrator is?
5. EVER had a disagreement with a friend about the meaning of a film?
A negotiation takes place whenever a narrative is told.
Donor of Narrative film maker
A space in which meaning is transitory,
Somewhat unfixed & open to interpretation.
Receiver of Narrative audience/reader.
This negotiated space means that in any narrative the receiver also becomes part of the narration and thus the narrator!
Barthes yes cigar man is back!
6. Story = the basic chronological order of events
Plot = the rearranged, highly selected chain of events in the film, which have their own integral logic. (Could include flashbacks, flashforwards, jumps in time)
EXERCISE: In pairs or threes, rearrange the story of either Cinderella or Red Ridding Hood into a new, unexpected, plot.You arent allowed to change the setting or characters.
Lost the plot!
7. You couldve started the story of Cinderella or Red Ridding Hood at any point in the chronology of the story. E.g. RRH could start with her being about to be eaten by the wolf and then the story told as a flashback!
What will always happen in a mainstream cinema narrative is that the plot will consist of a CAUSE & EFFECT flow of actions.
One scene or event is caused by an earlier one & in turn gives rise to an effect, seen is a later scene.
Therefore, everything we see has been MOTIVATED by something earlier in the film or will motivate something later in the film.
Example from Pretty in Pink or Mean Girls
8. 3 different time frames in any one film
Story duration thats the time frame in which imagine the story occurred.
Plot Duration the time in which we are told the story, within the world of the film.
Screen Duration the running time of the film.
E.g. Memento (Nolan, 2000)
Story duration = a few years.
Plot duration = one day
Screen duration = 113mins
Story Time... Listen carefully!
9. Characters provide the filmmaker with the means of exploring various aspects of the human experience, portray commonly recognized traits of human nature or complex inner conflicts of values & emotions.
Parallel Characters used to highlight the oppositional possibilities open to human beings.
Example of oppositional characters in Pretty Mean?
Blane & Steff Regina & Janice.
Characters who they?
10. Hero- protagonist or central character, whose primary purpose is to separate from the ordinary world and sacrifice himself for the service of the Journey at hand - to answer the challenge, complete the quest and restore the Ordinary World's balance. We experience the Journey through the eyes of the Hero.
Mentor provides motivation, insights and training to help
Threshold Guardian- protect the Special World and
its secrets from the Hero, and provide essential tests
to prove a Hero's commitment & worth.
Herald - issues challenges and announces the coming of significant change. They can make their appearance anytime during a Journey, but often appear at the beginning announce a Call to Adventure.
Vogels 7 Architypes
11. Shapeshifter - mask misleads the Hero by hiding a character's intentions and loyalties.
Shadow - can represent our darkest desires,
our untapped resources, or even rejected qualities.
It can also symbolize our greatest fears & phobias.
Shadows may not be all bad, and may reveal
admirable, even redeeming qualities.
The Hero's enemies & villains often wear the Shadow mask.
This physical force is determined to destroy the Hero and his cause.
Trickster - relishes the disruption of the status quo, turning the Ordinary World into chaos, their world and its inhabitants are transformed by their antics. The Trickster uses laughter [and ridicule] to make characters see the absurdity of the situation, and perhaps force a change.