- 1. Pilates Instructor Training Movement PrinciplesCopyright 2011-2012 Balanced Body Inc.
2. Pilates Movement Principles Anatomical and Biomechanical Concepts Essential movements The foundation for good movementCopyright 2011-2012 Balanced Body Inc. 3. Pilates Movement Principles reathing ore Activation eutral Spine bdominal Strengthening umbopelvic Stability trengthening and Mobilizing the Spine capular Stability and Mobility elease WorkCopyright 2011-2012 Balanced Body Inc. 4. Breathing The Anatomy of Breathing The diaphragm is the primary muscle of respiration along with the intercostals, scalenes, serratus posterior inferior and superior, levator costarum, quadratus lumborum and more. Copyright 2011-2012 Balanced Body Inc. 5. Diaphragm 6. Diaphragm 7. Breathing On the Inhale he diaphragm contracts. he dome moves down. he volume of the lungs increases and draws air in. bdominal pressure increases.On the Exhale The diaphragm relaxes. The dome moves up. The volume of the lungs decreases and air flows out. Abdominal pressure decreases. Transversus abdominis contracts. Pelvic floor contracts. 8. Breathing Movement Principle / Pre-Pilates Exercisesateral (rib) breathing ne Lung breathing niffing breath Copyright 2011-2012 Balanced Body Inc. 9. Core Activation he core, powerhouse or inner unit, is the foundation of every exercise in Pilates and in life. The elements of the core include: Multifidi Transversus abdominis Pelvic floor Diaphragmhese four systems work together to stabilize and protect the pelvis and lumbar spine during movement. Copyright 2011-2012 Balanced Body Inc. 10. Core Activation The Multifidi he core stabilizes the spine through a complex series of interconnections between the fascia, the muscles and the bones. he first link in the chain consists of one set of the deep muscles of the spine, the multifidi. he multifidi connect the transverse processes of each vertebra to the spinous process of the vertebra 3 to 4 levels above. he multifidi and the rotatores fill in the space between the spinous processes and the transverse processes. Copyright 2011-2012 Balanced on hey can be felt as the relatively thin and taut band of muscle justBody Inc. either side of the midline of the spine. 11. Rotatores and Multifidi rigin: Sacrum and transverse processes of lumbar through cervical vertebrae. Rotatores, thoracic vertebrae only. nsertion: Spinous processes of lumbar through 2nd cervical vertebrae. Rotatores span 1 2, multifidi span 2 4. ction: Torso extension, contralateral torso rotation, 12. Core Activation Posterior Muscles Multifidi, rotatores and quadratus lumborum on the skeleton. 13. Core Activation Transversus Abdominis The second link in the chain, the transversus abdominis acts like a corset to draw in the abdominal muscles and decrease the diameter of the waist. The fibers of the transversus abdominis wrap horizontally around the abdomen creating the deepest layer of the abdominals.Copyright 2011-2012 Balanced Body Inc. 14. Transversus abdominis rigin: Interior surfaces and costal cartilage of ribs 7-12, linea alba, lumbodorsal fascia nsertion: Interior surface of iliac crest, lateral third of inguinal ligament ction: Compresses the contents of the abdomen, stabilizes the lumbar spine 15. Core Activation Thoracolumbar fascia When the transversus abdominis contracts, it creates tension on the thoracolumbar fascia which surrounds the following muscles: Multifidi Erector spinae Psoas Quadratus lumborumCopyright 2011-2012 Balanced Body Inc. 16. Core Activation TA and thoracodorsal fascia As the TA contracts and tightens the thoracodorsal fascia, the multifidi expand into the fascia creating a stabilizing support around the lumbar vertebrae. The fascia acts like a corset around the multifidi forcing the muscle to elongate vertically as it contracts. This creates axial elongation or decompression of the vertebrae 17. Muscles of the Spine and Thorax 18. Core Activation Pelvic Floor The pelvic floor acts in conjunction with the diaphragm to create the top and bottom of the cylinder formed by the transversus abdominis, the spine and the spinal muscles. The purpose of the pelvic floor is to: Support the contents of the abdomen against the force of gravity. Control urination and defecation. Assist with sexual function. Facilitate childbirth. The pelvic floor is often called the pelvic diaphragm because it contracts and releases in relationship to the diaphragm when the core is working normally. Copyright 2011-2012 Balanced Body Inc. 19. Pel vi c Fl oor Pubic boneDeep transverse perineal muscleBulbospongiosusIschiocavernosusSuperficial transverse perineal muscle External anal sphincter Levator aniIschial tuberositiesCoccyx 20. Core Activation In people with a healthy back, the tr ansver sus abdominis and multifidi co-contract when the spine is under load to stabilize the vertebrae. In clients with back injuries, this stability system becomes dysfunctional. The pelvic floor stabilizes the pelvis by drawing the bones together from the inside. The diaphr agm facilitates the activation of the other parts of the system. The purpose of the Core Activation exercises in Pilates is to retrain the core or inner unit so it can provide effective lumbopelvic support during movement. Copyright 2011-2012 Balanced Body Inc. 21. Core Activation Movement Principle / Pre-Pilates Exercisesingertip Abdominals ll Fours Abdominals a.k.a Pregnant Cat elvic Floor Engagement a.k.a Kegels tanding Multifidi Engagement Copyright 2011-2012 Balanced Body Inc. 22. Neutral Pelvis eutr al placementmpr inted spine flexed lumbar spine with a posterior pelvic tiltxagger ated lumbar cur ve with an anterior pelvic tilt 23. Lumbopelvic Placement Neutral Position Neutr al Lumbopelvic Placement The placement of the pelvis is neutral when the anterior superior iliac spines and the pubic bone are in a plane perpendicular to the ground in standing and parallel to the ground when supine. According to current research in biomechanics, the core or inner unit works best as a spinal stabilizer when the pelvis is in a neutral position and the spinal curves are organized appropriately above the pelvis. While a neutral pelvis position may be optimum for many functional activities in an upright position, it is not always the optimum position for every exercise or for every person. 24. Lumbopelvic Placement Determining the correct lumbopelvic placement for each exercise and each client will: Maximize the effectiveness of the exercise for the client. Help them to achieve higher levels of performance in Pilates and in daily or athletic activities. Decrease the likelihood of low back pain or discomfort. Teach the client habits that can keep them moving well for a lifetime. 25. Lumbopelvic Placement In Standing Spine Sandwich: When standing or sitting with a neutral lumbopelvic position, the action of gravity on the core musculature leads to a balanced engagement of the muscles on the front and back of the spine. This decreases the stress on the spine and helps to prevent low back pain and injury.Copyright 2011-2012 Balanced Body Inc. 26. Lumbopelvic Placement In Supine Find a neutral position in supine by balancing the muscle engagement on the front and back of the body while maintaining a bony position that is as close to neutral as possible. When lying supine, the pressure of the ground on the back of the pelvis can tilt the pelvis slightly poster ior so use muscle engagement rather than just the bony position to optimize the position.Copyright 2011-2012 Balanced Body Inc. 27. Lumbopelvic Placement -Modificationsuppor ted neutr al Use a rolled up sticky mat or towel to support the lower back in neutral for: Beginner s Who need both support and increased proprioception to learn where neutral is. Clients with unstable lumbar spines To keep the back neutral during challenging exercises. Clients with an incr eased or decr eased lumbar lor dosis To support and help relax the low back muscles.Copyright 2011-2012 Balanced Body Inc. 28. Lumbopelvic Placement Exceptions to neutral Back injur ies Neutral lumbopelvic positioning may not be appropriate for some clients with low back injuries. The following conditions MAY prefer an imprinted spine and a slightly posteriorly tilted pelvis: Spondylolisthesis (displacement of a vertebrae) Spinal stenosis (narrowing of the spinal canal) Spinal arthritis (degeneration of cartilage and discs) Some sacroiliac joint dysfunctions (too tight or loose) Some disc injuries (slipped discs, herniated discs, bulging discs)An imprinted spine should only be used to allow clients to perform exercises comfortably and should be discontinued when the client can comfortably maintain a neutral spine position.Copyright 2011-2012 Balanced Body Inc. 29. Lumbopelvic Placement Imprinted Spine Impr inted spine For clients that need to use a slightly imprinted position for comfort: Clients can maintain the position themselves by posteriorly tilting the pelvis. Clients can use a sticky mat, towel or small wedge under the sacrum to passively tilt the pelvis posteriorly.Copyright 2011-2012 Balanced Body Inc. 30. Lumbopelvic Placement Starting positions Side Lying Keep the spine as straight as possible with the hips and shoulders stacked. There may a small space between the waist and the mat. Imagine the torso is sandwiched between two sheets of glass.Seated Sit on the center of the sit bones and align the spine directly over the pelvis. Sit up on a towel or pad and bend the knees if needed for spinal alignment If the ischial tuberosities are Mount Everest, you are right on top, not sliding down either side. Copyright 2011-2012 Balanced Body Inc. 31. Lumbopelvic Placement Starting positions Prone Support the pelvis in a neutral position by engaging the core.All Fours With a neutral lumbopelvic position, place the shoulders over the wri