MGT 201 Lesson 1

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1. Means of Livelihood Hunting and Fishing Phase Pastoral Phase Handicraft Phase Agricultural Phase Industrial Phase 2. Household Economy Village Economy National Economy Internal Economy 3. Barter Economy Money Economy Money and Credit Economy 4. Sole Proprietorship Partnership Corporation 5. Pakikipagkapwa tao Bahala na Pakikipagsapalaran Gaya Gaya Utang na loob, hiya, awa, bayanihan Kasipagan Pagtitipid Pagtitiis Pagtitimpi Katapatan 6. Entrepreneurship creates Employment Entrepreneurship improves the quality of life Entrepreneurship contributes to more equitable distribution of income taxes and therefore eases social unrest Entrepreneurship utilizes and mobilizes resources for greater national productivity Entrepreneurship brings social benefits through the government 7. It is a distinct process of planning, organizing, staffing, directing, and controlling, performed to determine and accomplish stated objectives by the use of human beings and others sources 8. Management is the attainment of organizational goals in an effective and efficient manner using functions of planning, organizing, staffing directing and controlling. Management Refers to the processes, techniques in coordinating activities of people, the direction of actions toward common goals. 9. Make decisions They develop a process for choosing, from available alternatives, actions that will achieve desired results. Organize and Staff the positions They determine the structure and allocation of jobs, and they place people in them. Plan They anticipate the future, discover alternative courses of action and set guides for future decisions 10. Control Activities They measure actual performance and guide it toward some predetermined goals. Lead the group toward its objective They motivate subordinates in their performance to achieve common objectives. 11. Men Material Machine Method Money Minutes 12. Planning Refers to the formulation of objectives, programs, policies, procedures and regulations in order to achieve the goals of the business Organizing Is the grouping together of people, establishing relationship among them, and defining the authority and responsibility the personnel have The delegation of responsibility and authority 13. Staffing Involves filling and keeping filled the positions provided in the organization structure. Directing This area involves leadership, motivation, approaches and communication Controlling It measures performance against goals and plans A process of measuring and correcting the activities of subordinates to assure conformity to plans 14. CONTROLLING Monitor Activities and make corrections ORGANIZING Assign responsibility for task accomplishment PLANNING Select goals and ways to achieve them DIRECTING Use influence to motivate employees THE PROCESS OF MANAGEMENT 15. Interpersonal Pertains to the relationship with others and are related to the human skill Informational This describes the activities used to maintain and develop an information network Decisional Focus on choosing among the best alternative courses of actions 16. Figurehead Performs ceremonial and symbolic duties such as receiving visitors, signing legal documents Leader Directs and motivates subordinates, trains, counsels and communicates with subordinates Liaison Maintains information links both inside and outside the organization 17. Monitor Seeks and receives information, scan reports and maintain personal contacts Disseminator Forwards information to other organizations members; sends memos and reports, make phone calls Spokesperson Transmits information to outsiders through speeches, reports and memos 18. Entrepreneur Initiates improvement projects, identifies new ideas, delegates responsibilities to others Disturbance Handler Takes corrective action during crisis, adapts to environmental crises Resource Allocator Distributes resources, schedules, sets budgets and priorities Negotiator Represents departments during negotiation contracts, sales and budget 19. Societal Forces Political Forces Economic Forces 20. The Classical or Traditional School The Human Relations School The Management Science or Quantitative School Modern Management 21. This theory of management is built on principles These principles have been Suggested by theories presented by: Mooney, Reiley, Urwick, Gullick, Fayol, Emerson and Taylor These principles were believed and prescribed in aiding and setting up and managing an organization 22. DIVISION OF WORK: Work should be divided among individuals and groups to ensure that effort and attention are focused on special portions of the task. Fayol presented work specialization as the best way to use the human resources of the organization. AUTHORITY: The concepts of Authority and responsibility are closely related. Authority was defined by Fayol as the right to give orders and the power to exact obedience. Responsibility involves being accountable, and is therefore naturally associated with authority. Whoever assumes authority also assumes responsibility. UNITY OF COMMAND: Workers should receive orders from only one manager. UNITY OF DIRECTION: The entire organization should be moving towards a common objective in a common direction. 23. SUBORDINATION OF INDIVIDUAL INTERESTS TO THE GENERAL INTERESTS: The interests of one person should not take priority over the interests of the organization as a whole. REMUNERATION: Many variables, such as cost of living, supply of qualified personnel, general business conditions, and success of the business, should be considered in determining a workers rate of pay. 24. CENTRALIZATION: Fayol defined centralization as lowering the importance of the subordinate role. Decentralization is increasing the importance. The degree to which centralization or decentralization should be adopted depends on the specific organization in which the manager is working. SCALAR CHAIN: Managers in hierarchies are part of a chain like authority scale. Each manager, from the first line supervisor to the president, possess certain amounts of authority. The President possesses the most authority; the first line supervisor the least. Lower level managers should always keep upper level managers informed of their work activities. The existence of a scalar chain and adherence to it are necessary if the organization is to be successful. 25. ORDER:For the sake of efficiency and coordination, all materials and people related to a specific kind of work should be treated as equally as possible. EQUITY: All employees should be treated as equally as possible. STABILITY OF TENURE OF PERSONNEL: Retaining productive employees should always be a high priority of management. Recruitment and Selection Costs, as well as increased product-reject rates are usually associated with hiring new workers. 26. SIMPLICITY: unnecessary elements should be eliminated from all activities as well as from the process and procedures established for carrying them SPAN OF CONTROL: The specific and limited number of subordinates that a manager can effectively handle and control ESPIRIT DE CORPS: Management should encourage harmony and general good feelings among employees. 27. By Frederick Taylor 28. First.They develop a science for each element of a man's work, which replaces the old rule-of-thumbmethod. Second.They scientifically select and then train, teach, and develop the workman, whereas in the past he chose his own work and trained himself as best he could. 29. Third.They heartily cooperate with the men so as to insure all of the work being done in accordance with the principles of the science which has been developed. Fourth.There is an almost equal division of the work and the responsibility between the management and the workmen. The management take over all work for which they are better fitted than the workmen, while in the past almost all of the work and the greater part of the responsibility were thrown upon the men. 30. The Gilbreths made use of scientific insights to develop a study method based upon the analysis ofwork motions, consisting in part of filming the details of a workers activities while recording the time.[24] The films served two main purposes. One was the visual record of how work had been done, emphasising areas for improvement. Secondly, the films also served the purpose of training workers about the best way to perform their work.[25] This method allowed the Gilbreths to build on the best elements of these work flows and to create a standardized best practice 31. refers to the researchers oforganizational development who study thebehavior of people in groups, in particular workplace groups It originated in the 1930s'Hawthorne studies, which examined the effects ofsocial relations,motivationand employee satisfactionon factoryproductivity 32. The movement viewed workers in terms of theirpsychologyand fit withcompanies, rather than as interchangeable parts, and it resulted in the creation of the discipline ofhuman resource management. 33. Physiological Safety and security Social Esteem Self - Actualization 34. Mayo stressed the following: Natural groups, in which social aspects take precedence