Management Session 3 chapter 2 Moghimi

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Robbins,St.,Coulter,M. Management-11th ed. - pages: 40 - 69 Management Session 3 chapter 2 Moghimi, University of Georgia

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  • 1.WEEK 3:MANAGEMENT CONTEXTLecturer: Bahman MoghimiDoctor of Business AdministrationM.Sc. Of Industrial Marketing & e-CommerceSession ThreeUniversity of GeorgiaSource:Cole,K. Management : Theory and practice-4th ed. - pages: 32 - 52Robbins,St.,Coulter,M. Management-11th ed. pages: - 65

2. B.Moghimi@yahoo.co.uk 3 3. B.Moghimi@yahoo.co.uk 4 4. DEFINITIONS Omnipotent view of management: Thedominant view in management theory andsociety in general is that managers are directlyresponsible for an organizations success orfailure. symbolic view of management: In contrast,others have argued that much of anorganizations success or failure is due toexternal forces outside managers control 5 B.Moghimi@yahoo.co.uk 5. CONSTRAINTS ON MANAGERIAL DISCRETION 6 B.Moghimi@yahoo.co.uk 6. External environment Refers to factors and forces outside the organization thataffect its performance7B.Moghimi@yahoo.co.uk 7. 8 B.Moghimi@yahoo.co.uk 8. Environmental Uncertainty Matrix Environmental uncertainty: refers to the degree of change and complexity inan organizations environment. Environmental complexity: refers to the number of components in anorganizations environment and the extent of the knowledge that the9organization has about those componentsB.Moghimi@yahoo.co.uk 9. 10 B.Moghimi@yahoo.co.uk 10. Organizational Stakeholders11 B.Moghimi@yahoo.co.uk 11. What is Culture?12 B.Moghimi@yahoo.co.uk 12. WHAT IS ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE? has been described as the shared values,principles, traditions, and ways of doing thingsthat influence the way organizational membersact. In most organizations, these shared valuesand practices have evolved over time anddetermine, to a large extent, how things aredone around here. 13 B.Moghimi@yahoo.co.uk 13. Dimensions of Organizational Culture14 Strong culturesthose in which the key values are deeply held and widely sharedhave a greater influence on employees than do weaker cultures B.Moghimi@yahoo.co.uk 14. Contrasting Organizational Cultures15 B.Moghimi@yahoo.co.uk 15. Strong Versus Weak Cultures16 B.Moghimi@yahoo.co.uk 16. Establishing and Maintaining Culture Why is having a strong culture important? For one thing, in organizations with strongcultures, employees are more loyal than are employees in organizations with weakcultures. Research also suggests that strong cultures are associated with highorganizational performance. And its easy to understand why. After all, if values areclear and widely accepted, employees know what theyre supposed to do and whatsexpected of them, so they can act quickly to take care of problems. However, thedrawback is that a strong culture also might prevent employees from trying newapproaches especially when conditions are changing rapidly. 17 B.Moghimi@yahoo.co.uk 17. Establishing and Maintaining Culture18 B.Moghimi@yahoo.co.uk 18. HOW EMPLOYEES LEARN CULTURE STORIES. Organizational stories typically contain a narrative ofsignificant events or people including such things as the organizationsfounders, rule breaking, reactions to past mistakes, and so forth RITUALS. Corporate rituals are repetitive sequences of activities thatexpress and reinforce the important values and goals of the organization. MATERIAL ARTIFACTS AND SYMBOLS. The layout of anorganizations facilities, how employees dress, the types of automobilesprovided to top executives, and the availability of corporate aircraft areexamples of material symbols. Others include the size of offices, theelegance of furnishings, executive perks (extra benefits provided tomanagers such as health club memberships, use of company-ownedfacilities, and so forth), employee fitness centers or on-site diningfacilities, and reserved parking spaces for certain employees LANGUAGE. The way to identify and unite members of a culture 19B.Moghimi@yahoo.co.uk 19. HOW CULTURE AFFECTS MANAGERSPlanning The degree of risk that plans should contain Whether plans should be developed by individuals or teams The degree of environmental scanning in which management will engageOrganizing How much autonomy should be designed into employees jobs Whether tasks should be done by individuals or in teams The degree to which department managers interact with each otherLeading The degree to which managers are concerned with increasing employee job satisfaction What leadership styles are appropriate Whether all disagreementseven constructive onesshould be eliminatedControlling Whether to impose external controls or to allow employees to control their own actions What criteria should be emphasized in employee performance evaluations What repercussions will occur from exceeding ones budget 20 B.Moghimi@yahoo.co.uk 20. EXAMPLE UNWRITTEN MANAGERIAL CULTURES Look busy even if youre not. If you take risks and fail around here, youll pay dearly for it. Before you make a decision, run it by your boss so that he or she is neversurprised. We make our product only as good as the competition forces us to. What made us successful in the past will make us successful in the future. If you want to get to the top here, you have to be a team player. 21 B.Moghimi@yahoo.co.uk 21. CREATING AN INNOVATIVE CULTUREChallenge and involvement Are employees involved in, motivated by, andcommitted to long-term goals and success of the organization?Freedom Can employees independently define their work, exercise discretion,and take initiative in their day-to-day activities?Trust and openness Are employees supportive and respectful to each other?Idea time Do individuals have time to elaborate on new ideas before takingaction?Playfulness/humor Is the workplace spontaneous and fun?Conflict resolution Do individuals make decisions and resolve issues based onthe good of the organization versus personal interest?Debates Are employees allowed to express opinions and put forth ideas forconsideration and review?Risk-taking Do managers tolerate uncertainty and ambiguity, and are employeesrewarded for taking risks?45 22 B.Moghimi@yahoo.co.uk 22. 23B.Moghimi@yahoo.co.uk 23. Creating a Customer-Responsive Culture24 B.Moghimi@yahoo.co.uk 24. WORKPLACE SPIRITUALITY Its a culture in which organizational values promotea sense of purpose through meaningful work takingplace in the context of community. Organizations with a spiritual culture recognize thatpeople have a mind and a spirit, seek to find meaningand purpose in their work, and desire to connect withother human beings and be part of a community. Such desires arent limited to workplaces, as a recentstudy showed that college students also are searching formeaning and purpose in life25B.Moghimi@yahoo.co.uk 25. SPIRITUAL ORGANIZATIONS CULTURAL CHARACTERISTICS1. Strong sense of purpose. Spiritual organizations build their cultures around a meaningful purpose. While profits are important, theyre not the primary values of the organization2. Focus on individual development. Spiritual organizations recognize the worth and value of individuals. They arent just providing jobs; they seek to create cultures in which employees can continually grow and learn26 B.Moghimi@yahoo.co.uk 26. SPIRITUAL ORGANIZATIONS CULTURAL CHARACTERISTICS3. Trust and openness. Spiritual organizations are characterized by mutual trust, honesty, and openness. Managers arent afraid to admit mistakes. And they tend to be extremely upfront with employees, customers, and suppliers4. Employee empowerment. Managers trust employees to make thoughtful and conscientious decisions. For instance, at Southwest Airlines, employeesincluding flight attendants, baggage handlers, gate agents, and customer service representativesare encouraged to take whatever action they deem necessary to meet customer needs or help fellow workers, even if it means going against company policies27B.Moghimi@yahoo.co.uk 27. SPIRITUAL ORGANIZATIONS CULTURAL CHARACTERISTICS5. Toleration of employee expression. The final characteristic that differentiates spiritually based organizations is that they dont stifle employee emotions. They allow people to be themselves to express their moods and feelings without guilt or fear of reprimand.28 B.Moghimi@yahoo.co.uk 28. 29B.Moghimi@yahoo.co.uk 29. TEAM EXERCISE Although all organizations face environmental constraints,the components in their external environments differ. Getinto a small group with three to four other class members andchoose one organization from two different industries. Describe the external components for each organization.How are your descriptions different for the twoorganizations? How are they similar? Now, using the sametwo organizations, see if you can identify the important stakeholders for theseorganizations. As a group, be prepared to share yourinformation with the class and to explain your choices. 30 B.Moghimi@yahoo.co.uk 30. Mind-map for Organizational Cultural Competence31 B.Moghimi@yahoo.co.uk 31. 32 32. 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