Magenta Pigment Isolation From Fungus

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This is a project report on Magenta Pigment Isolation From Fungus.

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  • 1. AN
    overview project
    on
    MAGENTA PIGMENT ISOLATION FROM FUNGUS

    FROM
    SHRM BIOTECH PVT. LIMITED KOLKATA
    (JULY-AUGUST 2010)
    submitted by
    ARKABRATA Bandyapadhyay
    3rd YEAR
    B.Sc (H) IN BIO-TECHNOLOGY
    Under the supervision of
    Mr. Ashish Roy
    (Project Coordinator)
    REGISTRATION NUMBER: 1586 of 2008-2009
    ROLL NUMBER: BUR D BT 2009/O5

    CONTENTS

    Pageno.
    ABSTRACT
    INTRODUCTION..
    WHY MAGENTA PIGMENT? ...................................................................................................
    PHISICS OF COLUR..
    PIGMENT
    MAGENTA..
    HUE..
    CMYK...
    VARIATION OF MAGENTA....
    MAGENTA DYE..
    PROCESS MAGENTA.
    ELECTRIC MAGENTA ..
    REVIEW OF LITERATURE.
    HISTORY OF MAGENTA.
    MAGENTA IN POPULAR CULTURE
    COMICS BOOK..
    BUSINESS...
    ASTRONOMY.
    FILM
    MUSIC..
    PARAPSYCHOLOGY.
    POLITICS.
    MATERIALS AND METHOD...
    MATERIALS.
    INSRUMENT.
    GLASS WARES.
    FIBERS
    CULTURE ..
    CHEMICALS...
    METHODS..
    PREPARATION (100ml.) OF POTATO DEXTROSE AGAR (PDA)...
    PREPARATION(100ml.) OF CZAPEKS BROTH MEDIA..
    COLLECTING OF FUNGUS..
    MAGENTA PIGMENT PRODUCTION PROCESS..
    QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS OFPIGMENT...
    PURIFICATION OF PIGMENT..
    PREPARATION OF SILICA GEL FOR TLC.
    PREPARATION OF MOBILE PHASE
    PROCEDURE
    RETARDATION FACTOR.
    RESULT AND DISCUSSION
    OBSERVATION OF MANGO TREES FUNGUS.
    OBSERVATION OF NEEM TREES FUNGUS.
    OBSERVATION OF JACK FRUIT TREES FUNGUS.
    CONCLUTION
    ADVANTAGES(Health and safety aspects of natural dyes)...
    LIMITATION...
    REFERENCES..
    EXTARNAL LINKS.
    ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
    I owe a great many thanks to a great many people who helped and supported me during my project paper.
    My deepest thanks to the project coordinator Mr.ASHISH ROY and also my collage H.O.D Dr. Bidyut Bandhopadhaya the Guide of the project for guiding and correcting various documents of mine with attention and care. He has taken pain to go through the project and make necessary correction as and when needed.
    I express my thanks to the Principal of University ofBurdwan, for extending his support.
    My deep sense of gratitude to Mr. Ashish Roy my project coordinator and collage H.O.D. Mr. Bidyut Bndhopadhaya,SHRM BIO- TECH pvt. ltd. Kolkata support and guidance. Thanks and appreciation to the helpful people at SHRM BIO- TECH pvt. ltd. Kolkata, for their support.
    I am greatly obliged to the director of SHRM who accommodated me for the training of the organization.
    I would also thank my Institution and my faculty members without whom this project would have been a distant reality. I also extend my heartfelt thanks to my family, my parents(Goutam Bandyapadhayay and Anulekha Bandyapadhyay),my sister(Angana Bandyapadhyay) my friends and well wishers.
    DECLARATION
    I DO HERE BY DECLARE THAT THIS DISSERTATION REPORT SUBMITTED BY ME ABOUT MAGENTA PIGMENT ISOLATION FROM FUNGUS, IS OF MY OWN AND NOT SUBMITTED TO ANY OTHER INSTITUTION OR PUBLISHED ANYWHERE ELSE.
    ARKABRATA BANERJEE
    REG NO.
    ROLL NO.
    DATE:
    ABSTRACT
    The fungus producing magenta was collected from different tree like mango,neem,jack fruit etc. in nature and culture these fungus from different trees on different PDA(potato dextrose agar) media plate. The fungal strain that produced magenta pigment was closely related to Phoma herbarum. The type of fibers added to Czapeks medium influenced which pigments were produced. The pigment was purified through TLC chromatography. The pigment structure was partially determined. This is the first report of the production of magenta pigment by a microorganism specifically in the presence of nylon-6 fibers, via an unknown mechanism. This phenomenon raises the question of why and how the fungus disperses the pigment inside the fiber and suggests that fabrics can be dyed using microorganisms.

    INTRODUCTION
    WHY MAGENTA PIGMENT?

    Demand for natural instead of synthetic pigments for coloring fabrics, foods and cosmetics is increasing. Unlike pigments that are synthetic, those from natural sources allow subtle differences in tone because such pigments generally comprise various color components. Microbes have recently received focus as sources of natural pigments . Many fungal species produce pigments. Monascus fungi produce red or yellow pigments that are used as food colorants. Hahella produces red, prodigiosin, Ashbya produces yellow riboflavin , Phoma produces orange aza-anthraquinone and Chromobacterium produces blue violacein. We discovered a fungus that produces magenta pigment. We found that the produced colors were magenta, pink or green depending on the type of fiber added to the culture medium. These findings indicated that various fibers influence the metabolic pathways involved in the production of secondary pigment metabolites.
    PHYSICS OF COLOUR :
    Electromagnetic radiation is characterized by its wavelength and its intensity. When wavelength is with in visible spectrum the range of wavelength human can perceive, approximately from 380 nm to 740 nm. It is known visible light. The science of colour is called as chromatics.
    PIGMENT :
    A pigment is the material that changes the colour of light .it reflects as the result of selective colour absorption. This physical process differs from Fluorescence, phosphorescence and other forms of Luminescence in which the material itself emits light. Many materials absorb certain wavelength of light that humans have chosen and develop for use as pigments usually have special properties that make them ideal for coloring other materials. A pigment has a high tinting strength relative to the materials it colors. It must be stable form at ambient temperature.
    Archaeologists have uncovered evidence that early humans used paint for aesthetic purpose such as body decoration. Pigments and paint grinding equipment believed to be between 350,000 and 400,000 years old have been reported in a cave at twin Rivers, near Lusaka, Zambia. The earliest known pigments were natural minerals.
    Microbes have recently received focus as sources of natural pigments, many fungal species produce pigments. Monascus fungi produces Red or yellow pigments that are used as food colorants. Hahella produces red, Prodigiosin, Ashbya produces Yellow Riboflavin, and Phoma produces Pink or Orange pigment.
    MAGENTA :
    Magenta is a colour made up of equal part of red and blue light. This would be the precise definition of the colour as defind for computer display. It is pure chroma on the colour wheel mid way between violet and rose. In HSV colour space, Magenta has a Hue of 300C.
    Magenta is not a spectral but an extra spectral colour. It cant be generated by light of single wavelength. Human being can only see as far as 380 nm in to the spectrum i.e. as far as violet. The Hue Magenta is the complement of green. Magenta pigment absorb green light, thus Magenta and green are opposite colour.
    Magenta actually contains more purple pigment than Fuchsia that is actually used to create Magenta. Magenta was invented in 1980. The colour originally called as Fushin made from coal tar dyes in 1859. Besides being called original magenta, it is also called Rich magenta. It is mixture of red and blue wavelength.
    HUE :
    Hue is one of the main properties of a colour defined technically as the degree to which a stimulus can be described as red, green, blue, and yellow.
    CMYK :
    The best places to start when trying to understand the colour spectrum is with the CMYK colour model which is composed of cyan that is a bluish green colour, magenta is a purplish red colour, yellow that is medium yellow and key which is black. The CMYK colour model is newer to the industry compared to the more traditional RGB or red, green, blue model.
    VARIATION OF MAGENTA
    Magenta is a purplish pink colour evoked by light with less power in yellowish green wavelength then in blue and red wavelength. The hue magenta is the complement of green. Magenta pigment absorb green light, thus magenta and green are opposite colour.

    The three variation of magenta pigment are;
    MAGENTA DYE (ORIGINALVARIATION)
    PROCESS MAGENTA (PIGMENTMAGENTA) (PRINTER MAGENTA)
    ELECTRIC MAGENTA (ADDTIVE SECONDARY MAGENTA)
    1. MAGENTA DYE :
    Before printers magenta was invented in the 1890 for CMYK printing and electric magenta was invented in 1980 for computer display. Magenta dye colour is also called Rich Magenta. Magenta was one of the first aniline dyes discovered shortly after the Battle of Magenta (1859). The colour was originally called Fuchine or Roseine, but for marketing purpose in 1860 the colour name was changed to magenta.
    2. PROCESS MAGENTA :
    In colour printing, the colour called Process Magenta or Pigment Magenta. It is one of the primary pigment colours which along with yellow and cyan constitute the 3 subtractive primary colours of pigment. The secondary colours of pigment are blue, green, and red. As such the CMYK printing process was invented in 1890. Process Magenta is not an RGB colour, and there is no fixed conversion from CMYK to RGB.
    3. ELECTRIC MAGENTA :
    For computer colour radiation, that specific Hue of magenta composed of equal part of red and blue light was termed the WEB colour fuchsia and was assigned as an alias for the RGB code of magenta on the list of standardized web colours ELECTRIC Magenta and fuchsia are exactly same colour. Some time Electric Magenta is called ELECTONIC Magenta.
    Review of literature
    Dyeing has almost ceased to exist as a traditional art. In this 20th century the importance of colour is our lives seems to be realizing less and less. It has been forgotten that strong and beautiful colour, such as used to abound in all everyday things is an essential to the full joy of life.
    A DYE can generally describe as a colored substance that has an affinity to the substrate which it is being applied. Both dye and pigment appear to be colored because; they absorb some wavelength of light. The first human made (synthetic) organic dye, Mauveine, was discovered by William Henry Perkin in 1856. Many thousand of synthetic dyes have since been prepare. Synthetic dyes quickly replaced the natural traditional dyes.
    One aspects of the invention relates to a process for preparing a magenta or Azo pigment involving the steps of coupling at least one diazonium component of one or more aromatic amine where R is a lower alkyl group or a Hydro carboxyl group.
    The present invention relates to metabolized Azo blue shade red to magenta pigment suitable for use as a coloring agent. Methods of making and using the metalized azo magenta pigment and plastic coating and inks. According to the present invention magenta exhibit high tinctorial strength while simultaneously exhibiting good heat stability, light fastness.
    In the middle of nineteenth century all dyes available to man came from natural sources. Most of these were vegetable extract and few were animal product. Today however practically all dyes are synthetic. They are prepared from aromatic compound. If a natural dye did not have the chemical grouping necessary to react with the chemical grouping of a particular fabric, which the fabric couldnt dyed with that material. According to present invention contain few (no more than about one) Halogen atom or pigment molecule. So the metalized azo magenta pigment is environmentally friendly. The azo pigment of present invention are prepared by initially diazotizing one or more aromatic amines suitable for use in this invention and there after coupling diazonium component with a coupling component suitable for use in this invention to form described dye.
    HISTORY OF MAGENTA
    Magenta is the first aniline dye discovered shortly after the battle of Magenta (1859).This occurred near the town of magenta in Northern Italy. The colour was originally called Fuchsine or rosine but for marketing purpose in 1860 the colour name was change to Magenta after the battle.
    The history of Magenta dye is very intresting. Egyptian mummies have been found wrapped in cloth dyed from the madder plant.
    Alexander the great is supposed to have deceived the Persians into thinking that his armies were wounded by sprinkling his solder with a red dye, probably madder juice, which contain the dye alizarian.
    The dark blue indigo dye has been known for over 4000 years, when Romans invaded England, they found that the country was inhabited by the ancient people called picts. They tattooed and painted themselves with indigo. Latin meaning of Briton is painted man.
    Mark Antonys flight from the crucial naval battle of Actium was especially conspicuous because he fled in Cleopatras barge, which was carrying snails, known for their colour Royal purple.
    Magenta in Human culture

    COMICS BOOKS :
    Magenta is a fictional character in the DC Comics' series Teen Titans.
    BUSINESS :

    Magenta is a color trademark of Deutsche Telekom AG, parent company of T-Mobile
    ASTRONOMY :
    Fig:Artist's vision of a spectral class T brown dwarf
    Astronomers have reported that spectral class T brown dwarves (the ones with the coolest temperatures) are colored magenta because of absorption by sodium and potassium atoms of light in the green portion of the spectrum.
    FILM :
    Magenta is a fictional character ("a domestic") in the Rocky Horror Picture Show.
    MUSIC :
    There is a song called Magenta on the 1998 album Blue Wonder Power Milk by Hoover phonic.
    Magenta is the title of a spoken word song by Ken Nordine on his 1967 Colors album.
    PARAPSYCHOLOGY :
    To psychics who claim to be able to observe the aura with their third eye, someone who has a magenta aura is usually described as being artistic and creative. It is reported that typical occupations for someone with a magenta aura would be such professions as artist, art dealer, actor, author, costume designer, or set designer.
    POLITICS :
    The color magenta is used to symbolize anti-racism by the Amsterdam-based anti-racism Magenta Foundation.
    In Spain, magenta is used as the official color of the UPyD "Union, Progress and Democracy" political party.
    MATERIALS AND METHOD
    : MATERIALS :
    1. INSTRUMENTS:
    Chemical balance
    pH meter
    Autoclave
    Laminar airflow for aseptic condition
    Incubator
    Refrigerator for keeping stock solution and chemicals
    Hot air oven
    Shaker
    Microscope

    2. GLASS WARES:
    Test Tubes
    Volumetric flacks and beaker for media preparation
    Conical flasks and Petri dishes (culture vessels)and Forceps
    3.FIBERS:
    Cotton
    Silk and polyester (Polyethyleneterepthalate)
    Filter paper

    4.CULTURE:
    For production for pigment fungus was cultivated in the following media.
    Potato dextrose agar (PDA)
    Czapeks agar
    5.CHEMICALS:
    Detergent
    Ethanol, Methanol,Isopropanol and Ethyl acetate and n-Hexane.
    : METHODS :
    • PREPARATION (100ml.) OF POTATO DEXTROSE AGAR (PDA):


Potato -- 20g.
Dextrose -- 2g.
Distilled water -- as required as for 100ml. media
Agar -- 2g.
Now peel off the potato and cut into short pieces then boil it with 50ml. of distilled Water and after boiled filter it with cheese cloth to separate the water and potato.Then measured the boiled water in measuring cylinder and then add the extra distilled water In the measuring cylinder upto 100ml.Then add Dextrose and Agar.
Me...