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Lesson Planning

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Lesson Plan

Text of Lesson Planning

  • 1.

2. Main Principles of Communicative Teaching Suitablematerial Mistakes / Natural Use of targetLanguage Positivereinforcement Involving Enjoyable Meaningful Interactive CommunicativeTeaching 3. Answer the 4 questions. Discuss your answers with your peer. Report to the group

  • Why is lesson planning important?
  • How is lesson planning important for the teacher? For the learners?
  • What do you take into account when you design a lesson plan?
  • What constant components are there in your lesson plan?

4. Why is lesson planning important?

  • Being clear on what you want to teach.
  • Being ready to cope with whatever happens.
  • Give your teaching a framework, an overall shape.
  • A reminder for the teacher when they get distracted.
  • It suggests a level of professionalism and real commitment .

5. How is lesson planning important for the teacher and the learners?

  • For the teacher
  • They dont have to think on their feet.
  • They dont lose face in front of their learners.
  • They are clear on the procedure to follow.
  • They build on previous teaching and prepare for coming lessons
  • For the learner
  • They realize that the teacher cares for their learning.
  • They attend a structured lesson: easier to assimilate
  • They appreciate their teachers work as a model of well-organized work to imitate.

6. What do you take into account when you design a lesson plan?

  • Five guiding principles:
  • Variety
  • Coherence
  • Balance
  • Flexibility
  • Challenge

Balance Flexibility Variety Challenge Coherence 7. Variety

  • Why vary?
  • a -to meet different learning styles:theorist Activist Pragmatic Reflector
  • b - to consider different intelligence types.
  • c-to keep them interested and avoid monotony.
  • What to vary?
  • Contents Activities Interaction modes Materials Aids
  • How to vary?
  • VAK Approach

8. Ways of Varying these different components

  • Tempo/Pace : Activitiesmay be brisk and fast-moving, such as guessinggames; or slow and reflective,such as reading or responding in writing.
  • Organization: The learners may work on their own at individualized tasks, or in pairs or groups, or as a full class in interaction with the teacher.
  • Mode and Skill :Activities may be based on the written or the spoken language; and within these, they may vary as to whether the learners are asked to produce (speak/ write) or receive (listen / read ).


  • Difficulty : Activities may be seen as easy and non demanding; or difficult , requiring concentration and effort.
  • Mood : Activities vary also in mood: light and fun -based versus serious and profound; happy versus sad; tense versus relaxed.
  • Stir - Settle :Some activities enliven and excite learners ( such as controversial discussionsfor advanced levels), or activities which involve physical movement(such as the race dictation) for the lower levels. Others, like dictation, have the effect of calming them down
  • Active - Passive :Learners may be activated in a way that encourages their own initiative ; or they may only be required to do as they are told

10. Coherence

  • Observe a logical pattern to the lesson: there has to be connection between the different activities in the lesson.
  • Smooth transition is one of the pillars that ensures success of the lesson plan during implementation in the classroom.
  • An activity in a lesson builds on a previous one and prepares for the next.

11. Challenge

  • Learners are intelligent human beings and come to class with knowledge previously acquired.
  • The new lesson should add to that knowledge without excess.
  • The lesson that does not challenge is a lesson that does not motivate.
  • No learning happens if the lesson doesnt present new items beyond students prior knowledge.

12. Flexibility

  • Two dimensions:
  • a -ability to use a number of different techniques and not be a slave to one methodology Principled eclecticism.
  • b - ability to change the plan if it shows inappropriacy to the classroom real situation for one reason or the other.

13. Balance

  • The lesson isa mixtureof a number of ingredients: techniques, activities, contents . Thesuccessfulteacher is the one who is able to observethe rightdosage and makes the learnersenjoya savoury lesson.

14. What do you take into account when you design a lesson plan?

  • Objectives set out to be achieved.
  • Prior knowledge of learners.
  • Materials and didactic auxiliaries to be used.
  • Tasks and activities to select and sttsgrouping patterns.
  • Interaction modes.
  • Timing and time management


  • 1- Information about the learners :

Howmany? Cooperative? Quiet/ Agitated? How old? Who? Students 16. COMPONENTS OF A LESSON PLAN

  • Enable learners to

Students needs Textbook Module map Official Program Objectives 17. COMPONENTS OF A LESSON PLAN

  • 3- Procedure

Logicalsequencing Who does what? Howmuchtime? How to do? What todo? Procedure 18. COMPONENTS OF A LESSON PLAN

  • 4- Aids

Realia OHP Lap top Data show Audio-visual aids Board Wall paper Maps Textbook + Worksheets Aids 19. Anticipated difficulties and reserve tasks

  • What might go wrong?
  • How to deal with it?


  • Prepare more than you need : It is advisable to have an easily presented, lightreserve activity ready in case of extra time .
  • Similarly , note in advance whichcomponent(s) of the lesson you will sacrificeif you find yourself with too little time to do everything you have planned.
  • Keep an eye on your time, make sure you are aware during the lesson how time is going relative to your plan.Include timing in the plan itself . It is difficult to judge intuitively how time is going when you are busy, and the smooth running of your lesson depends to some extent on propertiming .


  • Do not leave the giving ofhomework to the last minute !
  • At the end of the lesson learners' attention is at a low ebb, and you may run out of time before you finishexplaining .
  • V.If you are doing group work,give instructions and make sure these are understoodbeforedividing the class into groups and even, ifpracticable, before handing out materials.
  • If you do it the other way around , people will be looking ateach other and at the materials you have given them, and they are less likely to attend to what you have to say

22. Suggested formatof a lesson plan

  • Goals :A unifying theme,an overall general purpose to accomplish by the end of the lessonperiod.
  • e.g. Students will increase their familiarity with the conventions of telephone conversations
  • Objectives: Explicitly state what you want students to gain from the lesson.
  • What students willdo:
  • a.Be sure you know what it is you want to accomplish
  • b.Preserve the unity of your lesson
  • c.Predetermine whether or not you are trying to accomplish too much
  • d.Evaluate students' success at the end of, or after,


  • Final learning outcomes that you will need to measure and evaluate
  • e.g. [ 1 ] Students willdevelopinner expectancy rules that enable them topredict andanticipatewhat someone else will say on the telephone.
  • [ 2 ] Students willsolicitandreceiveinformation byrequestingit over the phone


  • Materials & Equipment: Tape / tape recorder / poster / map /handouts /OHP
  • Procedures:There is so much variation here that it is hard to give any"set recipes", but make sure your plan includes :
  • a .An Oral Test
  • b .An opening statement or activity as warm-up for the lesson itself
  • c .A set of activities and techniques in which you have considered appropriate proportions of time for :
  • --Whole class work
  • --Group and / or pair work
  • --Teacher Talk
  • --Student Talk
  • --Teacher / student Talk
  • d .Closure
  • e.Homework
  • f .Evaluation