Williams,learning is goal directed, it is based on experience, it impacts behaviour and cognition, and the changes brought about are relatively stable.
MUMFORD AND GOLD :-
learning is both a process and outcome concerned with knowledge, skills and insight.
HONEY AND MUMFORD :-
Learning can happen when people can demonstrate that they know some thing that they did not know before and when they can do something they could not do before
Acquires and develops new knowledge, skills, capabilities and attitudes.
4. THE LEARNING PROCESS
A number of leading authorities on learning in organization have declared that learning is complex and various, covering all sorts of things such as knowledge, skills, insights, beliefs, values, attitudes and habits.
The way individual learn and the extent to which they learn depends on how they are MOTIVATED.
5. LEARNING THEORY
6. Reinforcement learning
Reinforcement theory is based on the work of Skinner. It expresses the belief that change In behaviors take place as a result of an individuals responses to events or stimuli, and the ensuing consequences (rewards and punishments.)
Individuals can be conditioned to repeat the behaviour by positive reinforcement in the form of feed back and knowledge of results.
7. Cognitive learning
Cognitive learning involves gaining knowledge and understanding by absorbing information in the form of principles, concepts and facts, and then internalizing it.
Learners can be regarded as powerful information processing machines.
8. Experiential learning
People are active agents of their own learning.
Experiential learning takes place when people learn form their experience by reflecting on it so that is can be understood and applied.
Constructivists( Roger) -creating an environment in which people can be stimulated to think and act in way that help them to make good use of their experience
9. SOCIAL LEARNING
Social learning theory states that effective learning requires social interaction.
Wenger-suggested that we all participate in communities of practice and that these are our primary sources of learning.
10. LEARNING STYLES
KOLBS FOUR STAGES OF A LEARNING CYCLE
CONCRETE EXPERIENCE- this can be planned or accidental.
REFLECTIVE EXPERIENCE- this involves actively thinking about the experience and its significance.
ABSTRACT CONCEPTUALIZATION-Generalizing from experience in order to develop various concepts and ideas which can be applied when similar situations are encountered.
Testing the concept or ideas in new situations. This gives rise to a new concrete experience and the cycle begins again
12. The KOLBS learning cycle 13. KOLB LEARNING STYLES FOR TRAINEES
Accommodators:-learn by trial and error, combining the concrete experience and experimentation stages of the cycle .
Divergers :- prefer concrete to abstract learning situations, and reflection to active involvement. Such individuals have great imaginative ability, and can view a complete situation from different viewpoints.
Convergers :-prefer to experiment with ideas, considering them for their practical usefulness. Their main concern is whether the theory works in action, thus combining the abstract and experimental dimensions.
Assimilators :-like to create their own theoretical models and assimilate a number of different observations into an overall included explanation, thus they turn towards the reflective and abstract dimensions.
15. THE HONEY AND MUMFORD LEARNING STYLES
Activists:- involve themselves fully without bias in new experiences and revel in new challenges.
Reflectors :-stand back and observe new experiences from different angels, they collect data, reflect on it and then come to a conclusion.
Theorists:- who adapt and apply their observation in the form of logical theories. they tend to be perfectionists.
Pragmatists :-who are keen to try out new ideas, approaches and concepts to see if they work.
17. FOUR TYPES OF LEARNING
Instrumental learning :-learning how to do the job better once the basic standard of performance has been attained. Helped by learning on the job.
Cognitive learning :-outcome based on the enhancement of knowledge and understanding.
Affective learning- outcome based on the development of attitudes or feelings rather than knowledge
Self reflective learning- developing new patterns of understanding, thinking and behaving and therefore creating new knowledge
19. CONDITIONS FOR EFFECTIVE LEARNING
Motivation to learning
Self directed learning
Learning goals, direction andfeedback
20. Formal learning
Formal learning is planned and systematic and involves the use of structured training programmes consisting of instruction and practice
21. Features of formal learning
Relevant to some, not so relevant to others
All learners learn the same thing
May be variable gap between current and target knowledge
Trainers decide how to learning will occur
Problems may occur in transferring learning to the work place
Often occur in non work setting.
22. INFORMAL LEARNING
Learning efforts are relevant and focused in the immediate environment,
Understanding can be achieved in incremental steps rather than in indigestible chunks,
Learners define how they will gain knowledge they need- formal learning is more packaged,
Learners can readily put their learning into knowledge.
It may be left to chance- some people will benefit some wont
It can be unplanned and unsystematic, which means that it will not necessarily satisfy individuals or organization learning needs,