1. Debbra Marcel JP/8544/13 JIB 116 Animal Diversity: Assignment 1 1/12 MEDICAL IMPORTANCE OF HEXAPODS TO MAN A. Overview The use of animal products for medicinal purposes has been well established since early human history. There have been many studies of animals carried out by the scientific community around the world. Even though the therapeutic usage of animals especially the insects and insect products were widely known since early human civilization, the studies of plants had predominated these highly resourceful groups of organisms. Nowadays, zootherapists, entomologists and many other scientists are making more researches & discoveries on animal and the animal based products after realizing that these groups of organisms contribute a lot in human lives including traditional and the modern medical applications. This assignment will review some of the hexapods that medically important to man. B. Introduction Hexapods are the arthropod animals which belong to the subphylum of Hexapoda and phylum of Arthropoda. Placed together with crustaceans in clade Pancrustacea, hexapods are mainly characterized by the body structure with distinct head, thorax and abdomen which is called as 3 tagmata body parts. This group of invertebrates have uniramous appendages with six jointed legs; a pair of antennae; mouthparts modified for different food habits; head of six fused segments; thorax of three segments & two pairs of wings (sometimes one pair or none); abdomen with variable separate sexes, usually oviparous (laying eggs); one pair of mandibles, unique
2. Debbra Marcel JP/8544/13 JIB 116 Animal Diversity: Assignment 1 2/12 tracheal system and Malphigian tubules. Traditionally, there are two classes belong to the subphylum of Hexapoda, namely Entognatha and Ectognatha (or Insecta). Entognatha (Gr. entos, within, inside + gnathous, jaws) means the base of the animal mouthparts lies within the head capsules, and mandibles have only one articulation. There are three orders of arthropods belong to the class of Entognatha namely Collembola, Protura and Diplura. Entognathans are mainly characterized by their tiny size and commonly inhabit soils or dark/damp places. These arthropods are wingless; legs have been lost from the abdomen and undergo direct development. Ectognatha (Gr. ecto, outside + gnathous, jaws) or Insecta (L. insectus, cut into) means the base of the mouthparts exposed and exiting the head capsule, and mandibles usually have two regions of articulation. There are two subclasses of insects namely Apterygota and Pterygota. The order of Thysanura placed under the subclass of Apterygota. Meanwhile, there are two infraclasses namely Paleoptera and Neoptera placed under the subclass of Pterygota and more than twenty orders of insects described under them. Insects are the most diverse and abundant of all groups of arthropods and other animals combined. They can be found almost everywhere in the world due to their highly adaptable nature and power of flight. Insects features and characteristics are also very diverse. This group of arthropods mainly bears two pairs of wings on their thorax although some have one pair; and some are wingless. Their feeding habits include herbivorous, saprophagous, predaceous and parasitic. Almost all insects undergo metamorphosis and the growth processes are hormonally controlled.
3. Debbra Marcel JP/8544/13 JIB 116 Animal Diversity: Assignment 1 3/12 C. Discussion: The medical importance of hexapods to man Since ancient times, animals have been used as medical sources to human. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimated about 80% of the worlds population which is more than six billion of people rely primarily on animal and plant- based medicines (WHO, 1986). Different places in the world have their own way of applying animals and animal based products to treat diseases and improve health. Hexapods particularly insects are the most common animals used in the traditional medication. Medically, the entognathans have less known for their importance due to their miniature sizes and rarely encountered by human. On the other hand, insects play important roles to human welfare, particularly in crops pollination. In medical term, insects and insect based products have been used by many societies throughout histories from traditional to the modern applications. Thus, with the technology expansion, these types of organisms continue to be studied and applied in modern science. Following are some of the hexapods that medically important to man; Honey Bee Honey bees are a type of hexapods that belong to the order of Hymenoptera, under the infraclass of Neoptera. These hymenopterans have two pairs of membranous wings; mobile head; chewing or suckling mouthparts; posterior stinging on females; undergo complete metamorphosis; and are very social in nature. Among the most well known worldwide distributed honey bees in beekeeping field are Apis mellifera, Apis cerana, Apis indica and Apis dorsata due to their contributions and high quality products. Honey bees are mainly recognized by golden and black stripes on their body.
4. Debbra Marcel JP/8544/13 JIB 116 Animal Diversity: Assignment 1 4/12 There are three main categories of bees namely drone (male), worker (sexually undeveloped female) and queen (egg producer/manufacturer). Basically, there is only one queen in a bee hive which can lay about 1000 of eggs per day. The male bees are mainly to mate with queen to produce offspring and workers are the most productive and beneficial honey bees. According to U. Ar Drg. Kasm (2012), the uses of honey bee products of all honey bee species for therapeutic purposes (Apitherapy) is well established since ancient Egyptian times and are effective against wide range of ailments, from arthritis and chronic pain to multiple sclerosis and cancer. Honey is a liquid substance produced by the worker bees to feed on the larvae in the bee hive. Famously known as natural taste enhancer, honey is also contains multiple chemical compounds that are capable of enhancing the immune system. This tasty liquid is rich with antioxidant, antibacterial, antiviral and antifungal properties. Recent research found that the use of multi-floral wild honey obtained from the Malaysian jungle called Tualang Honey has the potential to prevent the acute respiratory symptoms such as cough, rhinitis, sore throat and fever besides soothing external sores and gastric inflammation just like the widely known manuka honey. Propolis is the sticky resinous product collected by honey bees from plants and has been used as folk medicine since ancient times. In the past ten years, the immunoregulatory and anti-inflammatory properties of propolis have been published in many scientific journals. The active compounds in propolis exhibit variable biological activities include antibacterial, antiviral, fungicidal, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antitumor, antihelmintic, antifungal and painkilling activity. It is also frequently used for toothache and gum disease, sore throats, chest infections and also stimulating the
5. Debbra Marcel JP/8544/13 JIB 116 Animal Diversity: Assignment 1 5/12 immune system. The polyphenol compounds of propolis are also capable of inhibiting lipoprotein oxidation thus might be an important step in preventing atherosclerosis. Bee pollen is one of the richest and purest natural foods ever discovered. This natural product from flowering plants has incredible nutritional and medicinal values. The type of plants where the workers gathered the pollen from determined the chemical composition of bee pollen. This natural elixir rejuvenates human body, stimulates the organ and gland system, enhance vitality and promote a longer lifespan. Taken orally as a protein rich nutritional supplement, bee pollen also used to enhance energy, memory and performance; prevent hay fever; stimulate metabolic functions and strengthens the cardiovascular and respiratory systems. Royal jelly is a whitish liquid secreted from the salivary glands of worker bees. This highly nutritious product is serves as food for the young larvae and as the only food for the larvae that will develop into queen bees. For human, it can be taken extensively to promote energy and good health; and improve skin complexion by promoting the collagen production. It contains mixture of vitamins, minerals, proteins and fatty acids and known to have various pharmacological effects include antimicrobial, antitumor, antihypertensive and several more. This heat stable product also has insulin-like action; neurological and estrogenic effects on the lipid profile; antifatigue effect; exhibit immunomodulatory and contains globulinic acid which increase resistance bacteria and viruses. Scientists also suggest that royal jelly can be used as ointment in the treatment for diabetic patients. Bee venom which can only be found in the workers ovipositor, can treat a number of ailments. At least 18 pharmacologically active components have been described in venom and some people claimed this venom able to relief rheumatism and
6. Debbra Marcel JP/8544/13 JIB 116 Animal Diversity: Assignment 1 6/12 arthritis. However, it must be used in small/appropriate dose as honeybee venom is lethal to humans in high doses (around 600 stings for an adult or 90 for a child) while for those who are allergic to bee stings even a single sting can be fatal. Other bee product such as beeswax also has unique characteristics as an inert coating for certain pharmaceutical preparations or as an ingredient to stabilize ointments and creams. In addition to that, the honey from stingless bees is also of high medicinal value. Picture source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Honey Picture source: http://linuxfocus.org/~guido/med/propolis/ Pis. source: http://keepingbee.org/bee-pollen- supplements/bee-pollen-supplements2/ Pic. source: http://en.wikiped