Click here to load reader

Introduction to qualitative research for shs teaching

  • View
    121

  • Download
    0

Embed Size (px)

Text of Introduction to qualitative research for shs teaching

Download links for presentation files

An Introduction to Qualitative ResearchFor Teaching in Senior High Schoolpresented by Jean Lee C. Patindol, 12/10/16

+

Qualitative ResearchAn APPROACH to research that emphasizes the qualities of entities, processes and meanings that are not experimentally examined or measured in terms of quantity, amount, intensity or frequency (Denzin and Lincoln, 2008)Quality refers to a things essence or ambianceRefers to the meanings, concepts, definitions, characteristics, metaphors, symbols and description of things (Berg, 2007)The research questions often stress how social experience is created and given meaning

+

How We Make Sense of the World

NumbersPersonal Experiences

+

3 Research ApproachesQualitative Words, not numbersUsually involves a philosophical stance that human knowledge is, to some extent, contextualised or local.Focus on interpretation by researcherSystematically arranging and presenting information to search for meaning in data collectedMakes less use of mathematical techniques.But some form of counting is almost always involved in qualitative analysis.QuantitativeConcepts are assigned numerical valuesCollects a small amount of data from a large number of peopleEmploys statistics or other mathematical operations to analyse dataAllows generalisation to wider population

+

Three Research ApproachesMixed Methods (core characteristics)Do you have a quantitative database? (close-ended)Do you have a qualitative database? (open-ended)Do you plan on bringing 2 databases together? (integration)What design and procedures will you use? (methodology)

+

Strengths of Quantitative ResearchIt can deal with large numbers of casesIt is capable of examining complex patterns of interactions between variablesIt can make possible the verification of the presence of cause and effect relationships between variables

+

Weaknesses of Quantitative ResearchLack of in-depth informationIgnores individual perspectives and experiencesLimited with topics we know little aboutCan be built on pre-existing biases of the researcherThe case of questionnaires:Language usedOrdering of questionsForced response formats; what if it depends?Missing dataSampling issuesResponse ratesLies, lies and damn statistics; torturing your data until it confesses

+

Strengths of Qualitative ResearchResearch done in natural settingsEmphasis on informant interpretations and meaningsSeek deep understanding of informants worldThick Description (Clifford Geertz)Humanising research process by raising the role of the researchedHigh levels of flexibility in research process

+

Weaknesses of Qualitative ResearchProblems of reliability - The difficulty of replicating findingsSubjectivity of nature of data collection and analysisObservations may be selectively reported making it impossible to gauge the extent to which they are typicalRisk of collecting meaningless and useless information from participants.Problems of objectivity vs detachment (particularly in participant observation but also applies to other methods)Problems of ethics: Entering the personal world of the participantVery time consuming

+

When to Use a Mixed Methods ApproachA purely quantitative approach or a purely qualitative approach is insufficient to fully understand the problemWe need to explore before we administer instruments We need to explain our statistical results by talking to people We need to see if our quantitative results and our qualitative results match We need to enhance our experiments by talking with people We need to develop new instruments by gathering qualitative data

+

Which Approach to Use?

Choose your approach and methods based on your research problem.

+

Five Common Designs in Qualitative Research

+

1. Narrative ResearchNarrative research: begins with the experiences as expressed in lived and told stories of individualsCan take the form of biographical studies, life histories or oral histories.Collecting stories and re-storying them

+

Example abstractIn my research, which has involved collecting womens accounts of becoming mothers, I am seeking to understand how women make sense of events throughout the process of child bearing, constructing these events into episodes, and thereby (apparently) maintaining unity within their lives Miller, T. (2000). Losing the plot: narrative construction and longitudinal childbirth research. Qualitative Health Research, 10, 309-323.

+

2. Phenomenological researchDescribes the meaning for several individuals of their lived experience of a certain phenomena.Can center around basic broad questions: what have you experienced in terms of the phenomena? and what contexts have influenced your experience of the phenomena?to determine what an experience means for the persons who have had the experience and are able to provide a comprehensive description of it. From the individual descriptions, general or universal meanings are derived, in other words, the essences of structures of the experience. (Moustakas, 1994)

+

Example abstractGiven the intricacies of power and gender in the academy, what are doctoral advisement relationships between women advisors and women advisees really like?

Heinrich, K. T. (1995). Doctoral advisement relationships between women. Journal of Higher Education. 66, pp. 447-469.

+

3. Grounded theory researchEmployed in situations where it is perceived as necessary to go beyond description and generate theory.The intent of grounded theory is to generate or discover a theory that relates to a particular situation. If little is known about a topic, grounded theories especially useful.Dont do a literature review in the beginningUse of the constant comparative methodCan lead to follow up quantitative research

+

Example abstractThe primary purpose of this article is to present a grounded theory of academic change that is based on research based by two major research questions: What are the major sources of academic change? What are the major processes through which academic change occurs?Conrad, C.F. (1978). A grounded theory of academic change. Sociology of Education, 51, 101-112.

+

4. Ethnographic researchThis kind of research focuses on an entire cultural group: describes their shared patterns of values, behavior, language and cultureField work as method of data collection.

+

Example abstractThis article examines how the work and the talk of stadium employees reinforce certain meanings of baseball in society, and it reveals how this work and talk create and maintain ballpark culture

Trujillo, N. (1992). Interpreting (the work and talk of) baseball. Western Journal of Communication, 56, 350-371.

+

5. Case study researchThis kind of research involves the study of an issue explored through one or two cases within a setting or context.A case study is an exploration of a bounded system or a case (or multiple cases) over time through detailed, in-depth data collection involving multiple sources of information rich in context.The context of the case involves situating the case within its setting. which may be physical, social, historical and/or economic.

+

Example abstractThe purpose of this study was to take a look into education through the eyes of three teachers who are facing their final year as professional educators. The overarching goal was to determine how they have seen children, teachers, administration, policy, and testing change across the thirty year span of their work as teachers in Texas public schools. Through their comments they give a considerable amount of insight into the transformation education has experienced in the last three decades. But unexpectedly, they reveal as much about our changing society than they do education itself.

Project submitted in EDCI 690, Summer 2005, Texas A&M University.

+

ReferencesCenter for Teaching, Research and Learning, Research Support Group at the Social Science Research Lab.,American University. (n.d.) Qualitative research introduction. http://www.american.edu/provost/ctrl/researchsupportgroup.cfmCreswell, J. (2007). Qualitative Inquiry and Research Design: Choosing Among Five Approaches. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Dodge,B. Qualitative research: The 5 traditions. Department of Applied Health Science, Indiana University. http://phhp.ufl.edu/~bdodge/Pini, Barbara. (n.d.) An introduction to qualitative research. John Curtin Institute for Public Policy, Curtin University of Techonology.Viruru, Radhika. (n.d.) An introduction to qualitative research. Department of Psychological Sciences, Quatar University

+

Ethics in qualitative research

+

Principles of Research Involving Human Subjects1. Respect for personstreating others as autonomous agents having rights and freedom not a means to an endfree, voluntary and informed consent privacy and confidentiality2. Beneficenceresearch should be for the good of the subject either directly or indirectly through benefiting societypossible benefits are maximised and risks minimisedimpasse often develops between social good and individual rights3. Justicebenefits and harms are to be distributed fairlyvulnerable groups such as cognitively impaired and mentally ill, their above average rates of institutionalisation and their dependency on others, have made them a convenient subject pool for researchwho should participate in research poses significant challenges to policy formation

+

Key Ethical ConceptsProtection of participantInformed consentUse of deceptionDebriefing participantsRight to withdrawPrivacy and confidentiality

+

Protection of Pa

Search related