Introduction to Art History

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I've adapted this from an original presentation that wasn't mine; adding a few more slides. Serves as an excellent introduction to Art History and its methodology.

Text of Introduction to Art History

  • Introduction to Art History
    Art History Starter Kit and Methodology
    Magister Ricard
    Somerset Academy 2009-2010
  • Slide Contents
    What is Art? Its Purpose and Its Function
    Fundamentals of Interpretation: Formal and Contextual Analysis
    Principles of Design: Style
  • Leonardo da Vinci
    Mona Lisa
    Oil on poplar
    c. 1503
  • Claude Monet
    Impression, Sunrise
    Oil on canvas
    1872
  • Andy Warhol
    Superman
    Screen print
    1961
  • What is Art?
    Art (art), n. 1. the quality, production, or expression of what is beautiful, appealing, or of more than ordinary significance
    Work of art = visual expression of an idea
    Medium = a particular material, along with its accompanying technique (plural = media)
  • Popular Media
    Paint media
    Acrylic, Enamel, Gesso, Glaze, Ink, Oil, Tempera, Watercolor
    Used on: Canvas, Cloth, Glass, Metal, Paper, Wood
    Drawing media
    Chalk pastel, Charcoal, Colored pencil, Marker, Oil pastel, Pen and ink
    Sculpture materials
    Beads, Clay, Found objects, Jewels, Marble, Metals, Papier-mache, Plaster, Plastic, Sand, Stone, Textile, Wax, Wire, Wood
  • Medium: Watercolor
    Thomas Girtin
    Jedburgh Abbey from the River. 1798-99. Watercolor on paper.
  • What is History?
    History (his-tuh-ree), n. 1. the branch of knowledge dealing with past events. 2. a continuous, systematic narrative of past events as relating to a particular people, country, period, person, etc., usually written as a chronological account; chronicle: a history of France; a medical history of the patient.
    economic realities
    historical events
    social dynamics
    religious and spiritual organizations
    technological advancements
  • Purposes and Functions of Art
    Communicating information
    In non-literate societies, art was used for teaching
    Today, photography, film & television are used for disseminating information
  • Purposes and Functions of Art
    Spiritual Sustenance
    All of the worlds major religions have used art to inspire and instruct the faith
  • Purposes and Functions of Art
    Personal & Cultural Expression
  • Purposes and Functions of Art
    Social & Political Purposes
    Artist have criticized or influenced values or public opinion
    Often it is clear & direct
    Other times, it is less obvious
    Monarchs who commissioned projects to symbolize their strength & power
  • Social & Political Influences
    Paul Revere
    The Bloody Massacre perpetrated in King Street, Boston, Massachusetts. 1770. Engraving.
    Louis Le Vau and Jules Hardouin-Mansar
    Palais de Versailles, Versailles, France. 1668-85.
  • II. Fundamentals of Interpretation:
    Formal and Contextual Analysis
  • Art = Form + Content
    In the most basic way art can be thought of as having two parts:
    its form
    its content
    Form relates to the formal aspects of art or how the art is made.
    Content relates to the subject of the art.
  • Formal Analysis of Painting
    Looking at a work of art to try to understand what the artist wants to convey visually
    Line and Shape
    Color
    Texture
    Space and Mass
    Composition
    Scale
  • 1. Line and Shape
    Lines define space and may create an outline or contour, as style called linear.
    They can be visible or implied
    It may be two-dimensional, three-dimensional (as with a wire), or suggested or implied.
    Wherever there is an edge, the place where one object or plane appears to end and other object or space
  • 2. Color
    Color is the event of wavelengths of light hitting an object and those wavelengths reflecting back into your eyes.
    Color is also an element of art with three properties: hue, saturation, and value:
    Hue is the name of the color (e.g., red, blue, or yellow.)
    Saturation is the quality or brightness or dullness of the hue; sometimes called intensity
    Value is the degree of lightness or darkness of a hue
    On a color wheel, colors are divided into groups called primary (red, yellow & blue), secondary (orange, green & violet), and tertiary (mix of a primary & a secondary)
    Complementary or opposite are two colors directly opposite one another on the color wheel
  • 2. Color: Hues
  • 2. Color: Saturation - quality or brightness or dullness of the hue (a.k.a. intensity)
  • 2. Color: Value - degree of lightness or darkness of a hue
  • 3. Texture
    Texture is an element of art pertaining to the surface quality or feel of the work of art.
    Texture can be described as smooth, rough, soft, etc. Some textures are real and others are simulated.
    Textures that can be felt are ones that the fingers can actually touch, however, in paintings drapery and clothing often have a texture that can only be seen, as it is simulated.
  • 4. Space and Mass
    Space references to what contains objects; may be three dimensional (actual) or two dimensional (illusion)
    Mass refers to the effect and degree of bulk, density, and weight of matter in space
    In architecture or sculpture, it is the area occupied by a form
    As opposed to plane and area, Mass is used for three-dimensional objects
  • 4. Space and Mass: Perspective
    Perspective is the technique that artists use to project the illusion of three-dimensional space onto a two-dimensional surface.
    Perspective helps to create a sense of deptha sense of receding space.
    Artists achieve perspective in several different ways:
    by making objects in the foreground larger than those in the background
    by making objects at the bottom of the composition larger than those at the top
    by using lighter colors and fuzzier edges to suggest the distant objects and space
    by using mathematical or linear perspective, where the recession is directed towards a vanishing point.
  • 4. Space and Mass: Foreshortening
    Foreshortening is way of representing an object so that it conveys the illusion of depthan object appears to be thrust forward or back into space.
    Foreshortening succeeds particularly well when the near and far parts of the object contrast greatly.
    Picture Space makes use of foreground, middle ground and background
    Andrea Mantegna, The Lamentation over the Dead Christ, c. 1490 CE
  • 5. Composition
    How items are arranged or organized in a work of art
    Symmetrical or assymetrical
    Static or dynamic
    Consider pictorial depth (illusion) rendering 3D on 2D surface or plane (picture plane)
    Picture space is comprised of foreground, middle ground, and background and extends from beyond the picture plane
  • 5. Composition
    Composition, then, is the relationship of the parts of a painting, sculpture, or work of architecture.
    Artists consider composition when they structure the relationships of colors, lines, shapes, and masses in their art.
    Artists generally try to make the composition of their works pleasing by balancing the aforementioned relations.
    Other times, artists will use composition to be expressive in some way, for example making some aspect of their art unbalanced or asymmetrical.
  • 6. Scale
    As an art history term, scale refers to the size of the art object at hand or the size of the objects represented in a particular art object.
    Scale can also have to do with the size of a building as compared with the people who inhabit that space.
    Artists often use scale to suggest relationships between figures and landscape, figures and other figures, and/or sometimes a figures importance.
  • Movement
    Another quality an artist might utilize
    Gives lifelike feeling to a work
    Artists often search for ways to create a sense of movement, from manipulating the objects within a work to the medium itself
  • Analysis of Raphaels School of Athens
    Subject Matter/Content: It is not a school but a gathering of important Greek philosophers.
    Materials and Technique: Raphael painted in the style of fresco. Fresco means painting on wet plaster.
    Composition: The School of Athens is done in a pyramidal composition which is very characteristic of Raphael and the High Renaissance.
    Use of Color: Raphael uses mostly natural colors with lots of browns and greys. He u