Interactivity, Games, and Gamification: A Research-Based Approach to Engaging Learners Through Games

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Games, gamification and game-based learning have entered into the vocabulary of trainers, elearning developers and instructional designers in the past few years. While the use of games for learning seems like a good match, questions arise. How should games be integrated into the curriculum? Can attitudes and behavior change result from playing a game? What elements of games can learning designers borrow from game designers? The answer to these questions can be found in the research on game-based learning. This interactive presentation includes many examples of using game-based learning for performance improvement and highlights how organizations have used games to achieve learning success. And, yes, you will play a game at this presentation. Discover how research-based practices fit in with today's fast-paced need for quick, effective instruction.

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  • 1. Twitter:@kkappByKarlM.KappBloomsburgUniversityGamificationofLearning&InstructionMay14,2013ASTDPhiladelphiaInteractivity,Games,andGamification:AResearchBasedApproachtoEngagingLearnersThroughGames

2. Interactivity(I)+Immersion(I)=SustainedEngagement(E)Resultsinmeaningfullearning. 3. Interactivity(I)+Immersion(I)=SustainedEngagement(E)Resultsinmeaningfullearning. 4. ContentrippedfromthepagesofTheGamificationofLearningandInstructionContentrippedfromthepagesofTheGamificationofLearningandInstructionSlidesforThisPresentationGoogleKappNotesLookforASTDPhilly2013PresentationResourcesSlidesforThisPresentationGoogleKappNotesLookforASTDPhilly2013PresentationResources 5. 1AgendaHowtoapplygamebasedstrategiestothepresentationoflearningcontent?Whatarethreeprinciplesforaddinggamificationandgamestolearningcurriculums?23Whatarefourmotivationalaspectsofgamesthatimprovelearningrecallandapplication? 6. Use game-based mechanics,aesthetics and game thinking toengage people, motivate action,promote learning, and solveproblems.Gamification 7. http://success.adobe.com/microsites/levelup/index.html 8. SomepeoplethinkGamificationisonlyaboutpoints,badgesandrewards 9. ifitwas,thiswouldbethemostengaginggameintheworld. 10. 20%increaseinprofilecompletion. 11. thepossibilitiesofgamificationarefarlargerthanpoints,badgesandrewards. 12. TwoExamplesoftheConceptsofGamesandGamification 13. MalonesTheoryofIntrinsicallyMotivatingInstructionChallenge Fantasy Curiosity 14. ChallengeJones,B.,Valdez,G.,Norakowski,J.,&Rasmussen,C.(1994).Designinglearningandtechnologyforeducationalreform.NorthCentralRegionalEducationalLaboratory.[Online].Available:http://www.ncrtec.org/capacity/profile/profwww.htm andSchlechty,P.C.(1997).Inventingbetterschools:Anactionplanforeducationalreform.SanFrancisco,CA:JosseyBass.Chapter2TheGamificationofLearningandInstruction. 15. RedesigntheInstructiontoStartwithaChallenge 16. Fantasy There are both cognitive andemotional reasons for evoking fantasy.Cognitively a fantasy can help a learnerapply old knowledge to understand newthings and help them remember thecontent. Emotionally, a person canconnect with the experiences and notbring with it real-world concerns or fears. 17. Challenge and Consolidation Good games offer players a setof challenging problems and then let them solve these problemsuntil they have virtually routinized or automated their solutions.Games then throw a new class of problem at the players requiringthem to rethink their now, taken-for-granted mastery, learnsomething new, and integrate this new learning into their oldmastery.James Paul Gee,University of Wisconsin-Madison 18. TransferTheabilityofsimulationstoteachskillsthattransfertoreallife,onthejobsituationsseemsabundantlypositiveComputerbasedsimulationsassessedasanalternativetoothermeansoftraining,asasupplementtoothermeansoftraining,asadevicetocombatskilldecayinexperiencedtrainees,andasameansofimprovingperformancelevelsastheystandpriortotrainingshowpositiveresultsfortransferamajorityofthetime.In22outof26studies,traineesdemonstratedequalorsuperiortransfertothecontrolgroupfromsimulations.Shenan HahnADL ResearchandEvaluationTeam 19. LearnersassumetheroleofanaspiringVenetianmerchantinthelate15th century,anerawhenVenicewasthecenterofcommerceintheMediterranean,andthereforetheworld.6levels. 20. Recommendations1) Useagame/simulationtoprovideacontextforthelearning.2) IncludeFantasytoovercomeresistance,encouragegeneralizationandinvokecuriosity.3) Carefullycraftthesimulation/gametoprovideopportunitiestoincreaseengagementandinteractivitytoincreaselearning.4) Transferoflearningoccurswhentasksarecognitivelythesame. 21. Learners remember facts betterWhen presented as bulletedlist rather than presented asa story.Is that Fact or Fishy? 22. Story 23. Researchershavefoundthatthehumanbrainhasanaturalaffinityfornarrativeconstruction.Yep,Peopletendtorememberfactsmoreaccuratelyiftheyencountertheminastoryratherthaninalist.Andtheyratelegalargumentsasmoreconvincingwhenbuiltintonarrativetalesratherthanonlegalprecedent.Carey,B.(2007)thisisYourLife(andHowYouTellit).TheNewYorkTimes.MelanieGreenhttp://www.unc.edu/~mcgreen/research.html.Chapter2TheGamificationofLearningandInstruction. 24. 1. CharactersStory Elements5. Conclusion2. Plot (something has to happen).3. Tension4. Resolution 25. NikePlusStatsforKarl 26. Recommendations Embedfactstobelearnedinthecontextofstories. Startthelearningprocessbyprovidingachallengetothelearner. Usestoriesthatarerelatedtothecontextofthedesiredlearningoutcome. 27. Weve Always WantedCharactersCharacters 28. Rosenberg,R.S.Baughman,S.L.,Bailenson,J.N.(2013)VirtualSuperheroes:UsingSuperpowersinVirtualRealitytoEncourageProsocialBehavior.PLOSOne.,8(1),19.Flying around a virtual worldas a superhero made subjectsnicer in the real world. physicalworld 29. Anexperienceasanavatarcanchangeapersonsreallifeperceptions. Inastudyconductedby YeeandBailenson(2006),itwasfoundthatnegativestereotypingoftheelderlywassignificantlyreducedwhenparticipantswereplacedinavatarsofoldpeoplecomparedwiththoseparticipantsplacedinavatarsofyoungpeople.Yee,N.&Bailenson,J.N.(2006). WalkAMileinDigitalShoes:TheImpactofEmbodiedPerspectiveTakingonTheReductionofNegativeStereotypinginImmersiveVirtualEnvironments.. ProceedingsofPRESENCE2006:The9thAnnualInternationalWorkshoponPresence.August24 26,Cleveland,Ohio,USA 30. Ontestsinvolvingdifferentwordproblems,thegroupwhohadacharacterexplaintheproblemsgenerated30%morecorrectanswersthanthegroupwithjustonscreentext.Animatedpedagogicalagents(characters)canbeaidstolearning.Arealisticcharacterdidnotfacilitatelearninganybetterthanacartoonlikecharacter.Clark, R., Mayer, R. (2011) E-Learning and the Science of Instruction: Proven Guidelines for Consumers and Designers ofMultimedia Learning. New York: Pfeiffer. Pg. 194. Chapter 4 The Gamificaiton of Learning and Instruciton 31. GuruCarloVecchio 32. Recommendations Usecharacters/agentstomodeldesiredbehavior. Usecharacters/agentstoprovidefeedbackandinstructiontolearners. Charactersshouldspeakinanatural,conversationaltone. Usetwocharacters,oneforcoachingandoneforexpertiseisbetterthanjusthavingonecharactertryingtodoboth. 33. Feedback 34. GameslikeTheSimsprovidefeedbackonmanydimensionswhichprovideopportunitiestoconsidertradeoffsandhigherlevelcognitivethinking. 35. Themosthelpfulfeedbackprovidesspecificcommentsabouterrorsandsuggestionsforimprovement.Italsoencourageslearnerstofocustheirattentionthoughtfullyonthetaskratherthanonsimplygettingtherightanswer.Shute,V.J.,Ventura,M.,Bauer,M.I.,&ZapataRivera,D.(2009).Meldingthepowerofseriousgamesandembeddedassessmenttomonitorandfosterlearning:Flowandgrow.InU.Ritterfeld,M.J.Cody,&P.Vorderer(Eds.), SeriousGames:MechanismsandEffects.Philadelphia,PA:Routledge/LEA.295321. 36. Embed into a larger CurriculumE-learningTraining ManualsClassroominstruction 37. EngagementPedagogyGameEducationalSimulationInstructionalgamesshouldbeembeddedininstructionalprogramsthatincludedebriefingandfeedback.Instructionalsupporttohelplearnersunderstandhowtousethegameincreasesinstructionaleffectivenessofthegamingexperience.gHays,R.T.(2005).Theeffectivenessofinstructionalgames:Aliteraturereviewanddiscussion.NavalAirWarfareCenterTrainingSystemsDivision(No2005004).Chapter4TheGamificationofLearningandInstruction. 38. Example 39. Seriousgamesleadtowellstructuredpriorknowledgeonwhichlearnerscanbuildbuttheeffectisonlyseenovertime.Wouters,P.,vanNimwegen,C.,vanOostendorp,H.,&vamderS[el.E.D.(2013),February4).AMetaAnalysisoftheCognitiveandMotivationalEffectsofSeriousGames.JournalofEducationalPsychology.Advancedonlinepublication.Doi:10.1037/a003131139Studies.Reviewof39studies54%conductedinthelastyear. 40. NegotiationSkillsCanbedividedintodifferentsegments: Knowyourposition Knowyouroppositionsposition Understandwhatyoucangiveup..Immediately after the learning from conventionalinstruction or a game, the surface level and text baselevel representation of content is still sufficiently availablecausing no difference between the conventionalinstruction or the game in comparison studies.In contrast, after 2-4 days, the benefit of deeper processingin the game condition pays off as the surface level and textbase level representation of the content decays.Studies with a one session learning stage in which an immediate and a delayed testis administered show no efficacy on the short term but they do in the long term. 41. Icanttellyouhowmanypeoplearecomingtomewantinganothergamesolution.Therepetitionofthedifferentpathshelpedmeretaintheinformation.ImaprettycompetitivepersonsochallengingmyselftogetoneofthetopscoresaddedalayeroffuntolearningabouttheMobileConnectproduct.ThegamewasafunwaytolearnaboutMobileConnect.Ienjoyedthescenariotypequestions,whichputitallintocontext.PlayerResults 42. BusinessResultsAveragecontractvalue2xhigherthanforpreviousmobileproduct.Firstcallresolution($35acall/average)isup45%OfallthelaunchesdoneintheprevioustwoyearstoMobileConnect,thesalesteamhasbuiltthequickestpipelineforthisproduct. 43. PlayerResultsIreallyhadagoodtimewithMerchants.Itsoriginal,fun,challenging,outsideoftheordinary.Ithooksyou!ThisisthebestonlinetrainingIknowof.Ithashadapositiveimpactonourbusiness.Itsaverynewandinterestingprogram.Thelessonsfromthementorandthereadingsareverybeneficial.Youlearnconceptstohelpyouplan,andafterwardsnegotiateinsituationsthatreflectrealnegotiationsthatyouhavewithclients.Veryinterestingcases.Youlearnveryefficientlyandeffectively.Applicabletoreallife.Ifounditveryinteresting,especiallythelessonsofthementor.Themainconceptsarecompletelyapplicabletoourdaytoday.Iamalreadylookingforwardtothenextcourse! 44. LearningResultsAveragecourseevaluation,todate:9.4outof10Averageassessmentofeducationalvalue:9.3outof10PercentageansweringYestoIfinditapplicabletoreallife:98%PercentageansweringYestoIwillrecommendthiscourse:99%Percentageoflearnerswhocompletedthecourseafterstartingit:92%Theaboveresultsareaggregateaveragesfromover30,000learnerswhohavetakenthiscourse. 45. SpecialThankYou! GameOn!Learning BryanAustin http://www.gameonlearning.com/ TheKnowledgeGuru SharonBoller https://www.theknowledgeguru.com/ 46. 1) Interactivityofgamesleadstohigherknowledge.2) Fantasy,curiosityandchallengearekeyelementsforinstructionalgames.3) Embedfactstobelearnedinthecontextofstories.4) Onscreencharacterscanenhanceelearning.5) Usestoriesratherthanbulletedliststopresentfacts.6) Presentlearnerswithadifficultchallengetoengageandmotivatethem.7) Usestoriesthatarerelatedtothecontextofthedesiredlearningoutcome.8) Feedbackneedstobetargeted.9) Embeddedthegameintoalargercurriculum.Takeaways 47. ContactKarlviaTwitteroremailTwitter:@kkappkkapp@bloomu.eduTwitter:@kkappkkapp@bloomu.eduLookforFieldbookin2014!