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Kashmir and the Indo-Bangladesh Enclaves Jeremy Caldwell

Indo-Bangladesh Enclaves

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Page 1: Indo-Bangladesh Enclaves

Kashmir and theIndo-Bangladesh

EnclavesJeremy Caldwell

Page 2: Indo-Bangladesh Enclaves

Kashmir - History• Once a princely state, taken by

both India and Pakistan in 1947• Insurgents rose in the 1980s

when Indian government denied people democracy

• India and Pakistan have fought several wars over the region.

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Kashmir- Conflict• China claims northern areas,

Pakistan claims west, India claims fertile east

• Perfect climate for agriculture, grows rice, grains, corn, vegetables, and fruits• Highly profitable agriculture

• Renowned for Cashmere wool

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Kashmir - Independence• Short-term Issues

• Pakistan and India both want control of Kashmir

• No formal government for 70+ years, no practice with democracy

• Long-term Issues• Only primary and secondary industry

• Prone to natural disasters such as earthquakes

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Kashmir - Future• Independence highly unlikely

• Fighting very common, deaths in the thousands

• India and Pakistan adamant for control

• International support needed for success

• Must strike before all-out war begins

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Muhuri River Char -History• The border has always been

unstable as the river constantly changes course

• Conflicts arose in 1893 with East Pakistan and in 1974 with Bangladesh

• Border issue resolved in 2011

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Muhuri River Char -Aftermath• Both countries building

embankments to keep river from shifting

• Island (“char”) in the middle of the river was under dispute

• Fertile soil used by Indian rice farmers, fell in Bangladesh territory

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Muhuri River Char - Future• As of 2011, no border disputes exist

• No desire for sovereignty in the region

• In the future, conflict will likely arise as Indian farmers try to keep control of the river• Strong possibility of peaceful negotiation, no need for supranational


• Conflict likely to arise soon, farmers still rely on the land

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Pyrdiwah - History• Partition of Bengal – 1947

• Poorly defined borders, enclaves on both sides

• India used Pyrdiwah(Bangladeshi town) as military base until 1971

• War broke out in 2001 around Pyrdiwah• 6.5 km of border under dispute

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Pyrdiwah - Aftermath• War ended in status quo

• Nothing changed, tensions rose between India and Bangladesh

• Many fled the region for fear of further bloodshed• 6,000 Indians left

• India built a fence 150 m from the border

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Pyrdiwah - Future• No resource conflict, no desire

for independence

• It is likely that the issue will be resolved peacefully• History of negotiations and

alliance between India and Bangladesh

• Fence causing controversy, Indian border guards have killed at least 70 illegal immigrants

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