- 1.Group 6 CHAPTER PRESENTATION BY: KIMBERLY COOPER, NOEMI GUERRA, ARLYN PINO, JACQUELINE SIGLER, VERONICA FISHER, AND NAOMI SAMOLE-PRAGER
- The issue of how to define learning disabilities has received considerable attention in the field since 1963, when Samuel Kirk suggested the termspecific learning disabilitiesat the organizational meeting of the Learning Disabilities Association of America (LDA).
- Specific learning disabilities
- Represents a heterogeneous group of students who, despite adequate cognitive functioning and the ability to learn some skills and strategies relatively quickly and easily, have great difficulty learning other skills and strategies.
- A student is not regarded as having specific learning disabilities if the deficit is primarily the result of any of the following:
- Visual, hearing, or motor disability
- Environmental, cultural, or economic disadvantage
- Lack of appropriate instruction in reading
DEFINITIONS AND TYPES OF LEARNING DISABILITIES 3.
- The term children with specific learning disabilities means those children who have a disorder in one or more of the basic psychological processes involved in understanding or in using language, spoken or written, that many manifest itself in an imperfect ability to listen, think, speak, read, write, spell, or do mathematical calculations.
- The major components of this definition include the following:
- Difficulty with academic and learning task
- Discrepancy between expected and actual achievement that can be documented through low response to intervention
- Disorder in basic psychological processing
- Exclusion of other causes
CHILDREN WITH SPECIFIC LEARNING DISABILITIES 4.
- Determining that students have a learning disability has always been a difficult and somewhat controversial task. This is largely because it is difficult to distinguish between a learning problem and a learning disability.
- IQ- Achievement Discrepancy: These studies included measures of behavior, academic achievement, and cognitive abilities. These studies found little relationship between IQ and word reading.
- IDEIA 2004 includes the use of response to intervention (RTI) as an alternative to the traditional aptitude-achievement discrepancy approaches to identifying students with learning disabilities.
- RTI provides a validated intervention to students in the instructional area of need before determining their qualifications for special education. Students who respond adequately to the intervention and are able to make appropriate progress in the classroom are unlikely to require special education. Students whose response to the intervention is low are very likely to require special education.
- Joseph Blankenships ideas about learning disabilities are that initially these students may not seem different from other students, because they participate in classroom discussions and may appear to understand the content covered. But as assignments are submitted and tests are given, he realizes that students with LD have difficulties with reading, writing, math, studying, and organizing their time.
- RTI neither creates nor fixes learning disabilities. However, models such as 3-Tier Reading provided a safety net for students who might end up in special education.
DIAGNOSING STUDENTS WITH LEARNING DISABILITIES 5.
- Students with LD often have difficulties with attention and in some cases, hyperactivity.
- Learning disabilities represent a group of disorders that causes students to have learning and academic difficulties.
- Dyslexia refers to severe difficulty in learning to read, particularly as it relates to decoding and spelling
- Dysgraphia refers to severe difficulty in learning to write, including handwriting.
- Dyscalculia refers to severe difficulty in learning mathematical concepts and computations.
- Phonemic Awareness: The ability to blend, segment, and manipulate speech sounds (for example,trashhas 4 speech sounds or phonemes: t-r-a-s-h).
- Alphabetic Principle: Learning how speech maps to print or learning letter-sounds relationships. Understanding letter-sound relationships allows students to decode unknown words by making the speech sounds associated with letters and then blending them together to make a word ( c-a-tiscat ).
- Rapid Naming entails having children quickly name familiar objects, letters, or numbers.These skills are important in building reading frequency.
- Students with LD, even those who read fairly well, may have problems with written language. These difficulties can occur in handwriting, spelling, productivity, writing mechanics, organization, and composition.
CHARACTERISITICS OF STUDENTS WITHLEARNING DISABILITIES 6.
- Signals for learning disabilities are characteristics of students with learning disabilities. Because these students are a heterogeneous group, only certain signals will apply to any one student:
- Has trouble understanding and following directions
- Has a short attention span; is easily distracted
- Is overactive and impulsive
- Has difficulty with handwriting and fine motor activities
- Has difficulty with visual or auditory sequential memory
- Has difficulty memorizing words or basic math facts
- Has difficulty allocating time and organizing work
- Is unmotivated toward tasks that are difficult
- Has difficulty segmenting words into sounds and blending sounds
- Confuses similar letters and words, such asbandd , andwasandsaw
- Listens and speaks well but decodes poorly when reading
- Has difficulty with tasks that require rapid naming of pictures, words, and numbers
- Is not efficient or effective in using learning strategies
SIGNALS FOR POSSIBLE LEARNING DISABILITIES 7.
- Today, more students are identified as having specific learning disabilities than any other type of learning disability.
- According to the Twenty-Seventh Annual Report to Congress on the Implementation of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, approximately 9% of school-age children were identified as having disabilities.
- Just over 47% of this group, or approximately 4% of the school-age population, were identified as having specific learning disabilities.
- During the last three decades, the number of students classified as having LD has increased substantially more than doubling.
- The percentage of school-age children identified as having a learning disabilities varies by state from 1.5% to 5.2%.
PREVALENCE OF LEARNING DISABILITIES 8.
- Growing public awareness of LD
- Greater social acceptance
- Limited alternatives for other students at risk
- Social and cultural influences on central nervous system integrity
- Increasing needs for literacy at work and in daily life
WHY DOES THEPERCENTAGE OF STUDENTS WITH LD CONTINUE TO INCREASE? 9.
- Most students with LD are identified because of difficulties with academic achievement.
- Teachers are usually the first professionals to notice learning strengths and weaknesses.
- Of all of the members of a pre-referral team, classroom teachers and parents have the most experience with a student.
- One of the most important things to do to ensure you are appropriately referring a student for learning disabilities is to ask yourself the following questions:
- Have you provided effective instruction?
- Have you given the student additional support and modifications?
- Is this student a distinctly different learner than others?
- Are there other explanations for this students learning problems?
IDENTIFICATION AND ASSESSMENT OF CHILDREN WITH LEARNING DISABILITIES 10.
- No one approach or technique is appropriate for all students with LD.
- Effective classroom teachers must use their best teaching practices to teach students with LD.
- Several common practices associated with academic success of students with LD include:
- Controlling task difficulty
- Teaching in small interactive groups of 6 of fewer students
- Using graphic organizers and other visual displays to illustrate key concepts
- Providing modeling and think alouds to demonstrate strategies and learning practices
- Teaching students to self-regulate and self-monitor their learning and to fix-up when they have learning problems.
- Providing opportunities for extended practice with feedback
INSTRUCTIONAL TECHNIQUES & ACCOMMODATIONS FOR STUDENTS WITH LEARNING DISABILITIES 11.
- Research on the use of advance organizers, or activities that orient students to the task and the materials, suggests that this is even more important for students with LD, learning problems, or limited background knowledge for the task being taught.
- A 1983 study found that when content-area teachers in middle and high schools used advance organizers, students with LD could experience significant improvements in both the quality and quantity of learning.
- Students with LD are taught how to listen for and use the advance organizers.
- After using the advance organizer, the teacher and students must discuss its effectiveness.
- Third, before an advance organizer is presented, the teacher must cue the students that it is going to be used.
USING ADVANCE ORGANIZERS 12.
- Students are most successful when they have an idea of where they are going.
PROVIDING A FRAMEWORKFOR LEARNING: STEPS IN USING AN ADVANCE ORGANIZER 13.
- One key to success for students with LD is to make the learning visible.
- Instead of asking repeatedly, What is the main idea of the story? until students come up with the correct answer, have the students model and discuss the thinking processes, or cognitive strategies, they use to find the main idea of the story.
- Teachers and students can use thinking aloud to comment on or make visible their thought processes as they are doing cognitive tasks, such as finding the main idea.
- Teachers can use discussions, referred to as instructional conversations, to make visible the thinking processes needed for understanding.
STEPS IN USING THINKING ALOUD & INSTRUCTIONAL CONVERSATIONS 14.
- Students with LD need extended practice and additional opportunities to apply their learning to ensure continued mastery.
- Several instructional principals that are important for students with learning disabilities are helpful for many students include the following:
- Using learning tools and aids
- Adjusting workload and time
- Presenting and having students demonstrate their learning in multiple ways
- Teaching students to use memory strategies
PROVIDING EXTENDED PRACTICEAND APPLICATION 15.
- With new technology and its increasing availability, more students with reading, writing and math disabilities are able to overcome their academic problems through the use of technologically based learning tools.
- Teachers are better able to organize their classrooms and use technology to facilitate effective cooperative learning activities.
- Computers offer a number of tools for students.
- Students with handwriting and spelling disabilities have been helped by word processing programs with built-in spell check.
- Through speech synthesizers and software, students with reading and writing difficulties have had the opportunity to hear what they write and then to read along with the computer.
- Other learning tools that are recommended for students with LD include calculators, spell checkers, tape recorders, and handheld computers.
USINGLEARNINGTOOLS & AIDS 16.
- Workload adjustments may include:
- Reducing the amount of work
- Dividing the work into smaller sections or tasks
- It is important to present information in multiple ways when instructing children with learning disabilities.
- Students with learning disabilities may have difficulty processing information when it is presented in only one way.
ADJUSTING WORKLOAD AND TIME 17.
- Research has consistently demonstrated that students with LD are less effective at employing memory strategies than their peers.
- This is particularly important for students with learning disabilities in a general education classroom.
- Students with learning disabilities may not automatically use memory strategies such as rehearsing information they are learning, categorizing the information to make it easier to learn, using visual imagery to see the information mentally, and using acronyms to remember lists.
TEACHING STUDENTS TO USE MEMORY STRATEGIES 18.
- Controlling task difficulty
- Teaching students with LD in a small interactive groups of six or less
- Using combination of direct instructions and cognitive strategy instruction
- Providing a framework for learning
- Modeling process and strategies using thinking aloud and instructional conversations
- Teaching self-regulation and self-monitoring
- Providing opportunities for extended practice and application
- Using learning tools and aids
- Adjusting work load and time requirements
- Presenting information and having students demonstrate learning in multiple ways
- Teaching memory strategies
KEY STRATEGIES FOR TEACHING STUDENTS WITH LD 19. ATTENTION DEFICIT HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER
- Students with hyperactivity disorder have been identified for well over a century (1902), but only recently have we begun to address the educational implications of their disorder in schools. The terms attention deficit disorder (ADD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have been used to describe students with this disability. Parent groups, such as Children and Adults with Attention Deficit Disorders (CHADD), have applied pressure at the local, state, and national levels so that appropriate educational services would be developed for their children.
- Myths and misunderstandings about ADHD:
- ADHD is not a real disorder and was only drummed up by pharmaceutical or psychiatric communities.
- Evidence reports that ADHD is a real disorder.
- ADHD is only a childhood disorder.
- ADHD affects individuals across the lifespan.
- ADHD is over-diagnosed and many individuals who are labeled ADHD are not.
- Though occasional misdiagnosis is possible with all disabilities, prevalence rates for ADHD vary from 3 to 5% (National Institute of Mental Health)
- ADHD is likely to result in overmedicating children.
- The increase in medication is likely a result of better diagnosis and treatment across the lifespan.
- ADHD is a result of poor parenting.
- ADHD is attributable to genetics in the vast of the majority of cases.
20. DIAGNOSTIC & STATISTICAL MANUAL OF MENTAL DISORDERS AMERICAN PSYCHIATRIC ASSOCIATION (2002)
- The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV), which addresses mental health disorders for children and adults, describes ADHD as a general term and subdivides individuals into three categories:
- ADHD, Predominantly Inattentive Type
- ADHD, Predominantly Hyperactive-Impulsive Type
- Students who display either or both of these characterizes can be indentified as having ADHD.
- Evidence to suggest that ADHD often coexists with other conditions such as depression, anxiety, and learning disabilities.
- Inattention refers to consistent (over 6 mo...