Grammar activities gr 6-8

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  • 1.Grammar Activities That Really Grab Em Sarah Glasscock, Scholastic Teaching Resources That Really Grades 68SARAH GLASSCOCKSARAH GLASSCOCK New York Toronto London Auckland Sydney Mexico City New Delhi Hong Kong Buenos Aires

2. Grammar Activities That Really Grab Em Sarah Glasscock, Scholastic Teaching ResourcesScholastic Inc. grants teachers permission to photocopy the reproducible pages from this book for classroom use. No other part of thispublication may be reproduced in whole or in part, or stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic,mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without written permission of the publisher. For information regarding permission,write to Scholastic Inc., 557 Broadway, New York, NY 10012.Editor: Sarah LonghiCopy editor: Jeannie HutchinsCover design: Maria LiljaInterior design: Melinda BelterIllustrations: Mike MoranISBN-13: 978-0-545-11264-2ISBN-10: 0-545-11264-8Copyright 2010 by Sarah Glasscock.All rights reserved. Published by Scholastic.Printed in the U.S.A.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 40 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 3. Contents Introduction . .............................................. 4 All About Nouns ............................................ 5 All About Pronouns and Antecedents . ........................... 11 All About Verbs . ........................................... 17Grammar Activities That Really Grab Em Sarah Glasscock, Scholastic Teaching Resources All About Adjectives and Adverbs . ............................ 23 All About Prepositions . ..................................... 29 All About Subject-Predicate Agreement . ...................... 35 All About Gerunds, Participles, and Infinitives . .................. 41 All About Phrases and Clauses . ............................... 47 All About Specificity . ...................................... 53 All About Sentences . ....................................... 59 4. IntroductionIt may be hard to convince students that grammar is a living, breathing thing that reflectsnot only the history of our language but also how language and its rules change in ourcontemporary lives. For example, today we try to use language more precisely to reflect thechanges in our society by replacing policeman or fireman with police officer or firefighter. (Werestill grappling with the wordiness of pairing everyone with the possessive pronouns his and her.)Grammar is simply a set of rules that help us write and speak clearly so people can understandwhat we mean. The aim of this book is to present an overview of major topics that will giveyour students tools become better writers and speakers.How to Use This BookThe book contains a mini-lesson for each of the following ten major grammar topics:Grammar Activities That Really Grab Em Sarah Glasscock, Scholastic Teaching Resources Nouns Subject-Predicate Agreement Pronouns and Antecedents Gerunds, Participles, and Infinitives Verbs Phrases and Clauses Adjectives and Adverbs Specificity Prepositions SentencesEach mini-lesson contains the following elements to support your teaching: 4 A teaching page focuses on introducing and defining the topic, teaching it in conjunction with a model passage, and applying it. A quote related to the topic begins each lesson. In some lessons, the quote is used as a springboard for introducing, discussing, or applying the grammar topic. 4 A short model passage shows important aspects of the grammar topic in action. Important points about the grammar topic are identified in the passage and briefly discussed. You may want to display the passage onscreen to introduce or review the featured grammar points. Students can also keep this page in their notebooks or writing portfolios to guide them in their own writing. 4 Two writing prompts encourage students to write and share their work. You can photocopy the prompts on card stock and then cut them apart for students, write the prompts on the board, or display them onscreen. With the Rest of the Class tips help students extend their thinking by sharing their work with their peers. 4 Three activities for the whole class, small group, pairs, or individuals give students hands- on practice with the grammar topic. These activities require minimal preparation and appeal to a variety of learning styles; for example, students may play games, chant, or write ads and plays. Use the discussion tip, With the Class, to invite students to discuss the topic further. 4 A reproducible activity sheet goes with the activity featured in the Apply section of each teaching page. Youll find that there is some overlapping of topics. Its impossible to talk about subjects andpredicates without talking about nouns, pronouns, and verbs, and its impossible to talk aboutsentences without talking about all the other grammar topics in the book. Immerse your students in an overview of each grammar topic or dive more deeply into oneaspect of it. I hope this book encourages your students to see the powerful effect that grammarhas on our words and the effect we all have on our language.4 5. All About Nouns] All nouns are abbreviations. Instead of saying cold, sharp, burning,unbreakable, shining, pointy, we utter dagger; for the receding sunand oncoming darkness, we say twilight. Jorge Luis BorgesNouns ground a sentence. Without nouns, there is nobody or nothingto spark the action. This mini-lesson focuses on the following aspectsof nouns: nouns and noun phrasesGrammar Activities That Really Grab Em Sarah Glasscock, Scholastic Teaching Resources subject-verb agreement possessive nouns descriptive nouns Introduction Begin a mini-lesson on nouns by writing a short definition of this part ofJust exactlywhat is junkshould you trash,do with it garbage, litter, deb Texas, has recycle it,ris, uselesstoss it, sell things, rubcreated a Cathedralit, or turn 1bishandof Junk in it into a worwhatbeen wiri speech on the board. Heres an example: A noun names a person, place,ng and welhis backya k of art?ding andrd. SinceA man in stringing 2 1988, VinAustin, growing! and stacking ce Hannem structure. ann, hasLike manjunk intohas towers,y other cathan immens vaulted ceiledrals, thise, 60-tonings, andoneand still animal, thing, or idea: After experiencing freedom from gravity when these arch trusses. Institecturalead of ston details are e,bicycle whe made out els, dolls,of discardand othered anymore. things nobA wind chim ody wan e made of ts he somersaulted over the moon, James landed in his front yard again, music in CDs provide the cathedr 3s al. The locafor Vince l artists nickHannemname ann is ya4Some ofrdist.Grammar Hannem5anns neig which surprised his Dalmatian. Austin arenhbors andt so hap the City 6 py about of Activities6They thinthe Cathed k its uglyral of Junand unsafe. k. city has insp But over That Reallyected thethe years, structure the down a pyr and declareamid mad d that its Grab Em!, e of cast sturdy. Ononly a pile -off TVs. ce, Vince . Well, wha The citysdid haveengineer to take Teach 8t kind of declared The Cathed pile expert 7that theGrades 68 ral of Jun are you?pyramidk is a popVince askwas really and musicia ular spot ed. ns have throto visit inwn CD releAustin. Cou 2010 bykids wanase partiesples haveder through inside it,been marthe Cathed too. Somried there, recognizral of Jun etimes, gro e things k on eld ups of sch Sarah Glass they use trips. Vinooltrash wou d to ownce says thald end up.but threwt some visitaway. The ors even y probab Distribute copies of the model passage The Cathedral of Junk only nevercock, Schol imagined where the irastic Teach page 7 to students. Allow time for them to read it on their own, or ing Resources ask them to follow along as you read it aloud. Then use the teaching guide on page 6 to discuss general notes on nouns and how the writer used them in the passage.Name _________ _________ __________________ _________ _________ (Also see the lessons on pronouns and antecedents on pages 11 16,_______Date ___ ______________ subject-verb agreement on pages 3540, gerunds, participles, and infinitives on page 4146, and phrases and clauses, pages 4752.) Read theabove quo te. Thenwrite a nou Apply words and phrases than in the cen t your nouter of then standsweb. Com as an abb plete the reviation web withfor. On the board or a chart, make a list of nouns such as cactus, freedom,rcesing Resou astic Teach computer, adult, and pencil. Then hand out the Abbreviate!ock, Schol Sarah Glassc reproducible on page 10 and go over the directions. Encourage 2010 by Grades 68 students to let their minds roam widely as they think about theGrab Em!, That Really noun they have chosen. You may want to begin by assigning theActivitiesGrammar same noun to students. Encourage pairs of students to share their abbreviations with each other and try to identify the original noun or noun phrase. Record students responses to get a comprehensive definition of the noun. 5 6. Nouns and Noun PhrasesA noun phrase is a group of words that begins with a noun or a pronoun and functionsas a noun.KEY POINTSTEACHING WITH THE MODEL PASSAGEemind students that nouns name people,R 1 The noun junk names a thing. The nounsanimals, places, things, and ideas. between the dashes are synonyms for junk.noun phrase contains a noun and the wordsA 2 In the noun phrase work of art, the prepositionalthat modify the noun. phrase of art modifies the noun work. It tells whathe closest noun to the verb may not be theT kind of work it is.subject but a part of a noun phrase.Subject-Verb AgreementSubjects and verbs must always agree.Grammar Activities That Really Grab Em Sarah Glasscock, Scholastic Teaching ResourcesKEY POINTSTEACHING WITH THE MODEL PASSAGEcomplete sentence needs a subject and aA 3 The subject in the noun phrase A wind chimeverb. The subject and verb may be singularmade of CDs, is chime. The verb must agree withor plural, but they must always agree withthe singular noun chime, not t