Gamified Learning Activities In Situ: Lessons Learnt with Teachers and Students

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  • 1. GAMIFIED LEARNING ACTIVITIES IN SITU:Lessons Learnt with Teachers and StudentsJavier Melero, Davinia Hernndez-Leo, Josep BlatInteractive Technologies GroupUniversitat Pompeu FabraEEE Meeting Legans, 27-28 May 2013

2. OUTLINEEEE Meeting Legans, 27-28 May 20131. Introduction2. A conceptual model for puzzle-based games design3. Methodology4. Evaluation5. Results on teachers and students6. Conclusions and future work 3. INTRODUCTION3 M-learning: Situated learning activities in physical spaces Benefits: Exploration skills and cooperation (Jeng et al. 2010) Previous Work: QuesTInSitu (Santos et al. 2011) Explorative and Spatial Skills Foster students motivation and self-assessmentFurther research work involve improving students reflexion whenperforming situated learning activitiesEEE Meeting Legans, 27-28 May 2013 4. INTRODUCTION4How can we support more fruitful learning activities in situ thatcan be designed by teachers? Adopted approach: A metaphor based on puzzle games Educational Games: strengthen and support school achievement, cognitiveabilities, motivation towards learning, reflection, attention and concentration. Puzzles: arrangement of a set of pieces into a single, well-fitting structure thatinterrelates them Benefits: Puzzle-based games can engage students in the subject topics, fosterstudents problem solving, analytical and memory skills (Huang 2007; Bottino2008). The nature of puzzle-based games seems relevant to consider as potentialeducational strategy to feasibly involve teachers as game designers (Huang2007; Crawford 1982)Research QuestionEEE Meeting Legans, 27-28 May 2013 5. INTRODUCTION5Main objectives: To propose a conceptual model, and its associated binding, for the design andcomputational representation of puzzle-based games To support the teachers the creation of in situ learning activities following theconceptual model Enactment with studentsObjectivesEEE Meeting Legans, 27-28 May 2013 6. PUZZLE-BASED GAMES6 Previous research studies aboutgame design elements that have totake into account when designingeducational games (Fisch, 2005;Jones, 1998; Kirriemuir et al., 2004;Malone, 1981; Sandford et al., 2005;Squire et al., 2003) A 4-dimension framework,considering the role of teachers,intended to evaluate the potential ofusing games- and simulation-basedlearning (de Freitas et al., 2006)A Conceptual Model (1/2)The proposed conceptual model considers:EEE Meeting Legans, 27-28 May 2013 7. PUZZLE-BASED GAMES7A Conceptual Model (2/2)Graphical representation:EEE Meeting Legans, 27-28 May 2013 8. 8We explore how can we apply the puzzle-based game metaphor in thecreation of question item-based activitiesConsidering students: Applying the puzzle-based game metaphor in situated learning activitiesenhance the students learning experience Aim: to engage students in reflecting on the correct solutions Similar to jigsaw puzzles: players could try to solve the different questions asmany times as needed until reaching a correct solution Ways to find the correct solutions: reflecting on wrong past choices,consulting resources provided by the gamified application, discussing withother students, asking people, searching by the Internet, etc.PUZZLE-BASED GAMESThe metaphor to design situated activities (1/2)EEE Meeting Legans, 27-28 May 2013 9. 9Considering teachers: Flexible metaphor for the design of gamified situated learning activities(independent of the subject matter) Elements considered in the metaphor to design the (assessment) in situ learningactivities:PUZZLE-BASED GAMESThe metaphor to design situated activities (2/2)Board Geographical zones or museums roomsSlots Questions designed for the gamified learning activityPieces Options associated to each questionPuzzle Groups of slotsLevel Contains a puzzle. Levels asPoints Correct/Incorrect answers, consulting hints.Bonus Extra points when all questions from a level have been correctly answeredFeedback Information associated to ranges of pointsHints Information of help to guide students to find the correct answerEEE Meeting Legans, 27-28 May 2013 10. 10 The teachers became co-participants in the design andanalysis Involves social interactions withthe teachers: Sharing ideas Looking at multiple aspects ofthe design and developing Involves different participantsin the design (researchers andteachersMETHODOLOGYDesign-based Research Methodology (1/2)DesignEnactmentAnalysisRe-design The methodology (Barab et al., 2004; Collins et al. 1992; DBRC, 2003)involves continuous cycles of:EEE Meeting Legans, 27-28 May 2013 11. 11Applying the design-based research methodology: Context: The puzzle-based game metaphor as an approach to create gamified insitu learning activities Participants: Teachers (designers) and students (end users) of secondaryeducation Design: filling the templates containing the different key elements of theconceptual model Enactment: QuesTInSitu: The Game Analysis: Mixed evaluation method considering: Observations, tests, questionnaires, and log files (with students) Interviews and questionnaires (with teachers)METHODOLOGYDesign-based Research Methodology (2/2)EEE Meeting Legans, 27-28 May 2013 12. 12EVALUATIONThree gamified situated learning activities (1/2)MNAC Discovering Vic Discovering lHTeachersInvolved1 teacher 1 teacher 7 teachersPurpose Activity associated to asubject, as a learningactivityActivity associated to asubject, as part of itsformative assessmentTransversal activity in theschoolContext Learning about differentcontemporary picturesof the MNACLearning about the cityof Vic and its art history(unfamiliar city for mostof the students)Discovering and learningabout the heritage of thecity of lHospitalet (theirown city)Secondary teachers of different schools were involved in the design of their owngamified situated learning activities considering the puzzle-based gamemetaphor:EEE Meeting Legans, 27-28 May 2013 13. 13EVALUATIONThree gamified situated learning activities (2/2)MNAC Discovering Vic Discovering lHospitaletNumber Levels 4 levels 4 levels 10 levelsNumber Questions 20 questions 75 questions 55 questionsPoints CorrectAnswers50 points more 1 point more 250 points morePoints IncorrectAnswers10 points less 0.3 points less the first attempt, 0.5point the second one, 1 point the thirdone.100 points lessNumber Hints 19 hints 25 hints 52 hintsPoints Hints 50 points less 0.2 points less 100 points lessExtra Bonus 50 points more 1.5 points more when all the questionscorrectly answered at the first attempt,0.75 points otherwise.Proportional to the number of questionsHints Content Short text about the contextrelated to the questionShort text about the context related tothe questionSuggestions rather than clues (askpeople, read the information that appearsnext to the statue, etc.)Levels Information Short sentence of themuseums roomShort sentence of the geographical zone General information about the zone andparticular information about the questionsFeedbackMessagesInformal Formal InformalSummary of the game design task for creating situated learning activities:EEE Meeting Legans, 27-28 May 2013 14. 14RESULTSMNAC Discovering Vic Discovering lHospitaletEducationalbenefits(metaphor)Metaphor perceived asmotivating, entertaining,educationalMetaphor allowsconsolidatingknowledge and learningfrom mistakesMetaphor is stimulating,encouraging, andmotivatingApproach(answering asmany times asneeded)Useful to help studentsto reflect but difficult forthe teachers to knowthe students difficultiesThe teacher totallyagrees on theimportance of theapproachDifferent ratings whenasking about theimportance of theapproach*Data gathering techniques: questionnaires (once the teachers finished their gamedesign task) and interviewsSummary of results (according to the teachers opinions) [1/2]:* A teacher pointed out that I find the bonus, hints and punctuation more motivating and interesting than trying and trying to reach thecorrect answer or having a free hint. It is not bad, but I find these elements dispensableEEE Meeting Legans, 27-28 May 2013Teachers opinions (1/2) 15. 15RESULTSTeachers opinions (2/2)MNAC Discovering Vic Discovering lHospitaletElementsunderstandingNo problemsunderstanding what thedifferent elements meanNo problems understandingwhat the different elementsmeanThe Level element was themost problematic*. Slot andpieces, just at the beginning**Hints Hints are useful to guidestudents, but not eachquestion should haveHints are important to guidestudents in case that theyare lost or stuckHints are a good mechanism toadvance in the game, but notall the questions should haveBonus Important to keep studentsmotivatedImportant to keep studentsmotivatedImportant to keep studentsmotivatedPunctuation Important since it maystimulate students toreflect on their decisionswhen selecting an answerHighlights the importance ofdesigning adaptedpunctuation depending onthe number of wrongattemptsGood approach to allowstudents self-reflecting on theirperformance. 5 out of the 7teachers found very importantthe adapted punctuationdepending on the number ofwrong attempts.Feedback Important to students toreflect on their actionsThe teacher did not find veryimportant the feedbackFeedback are perceived asmotivating and necessarySummary of results (according to the teachers opinions) [2/2]:* 6 out of the 7 teachers quite or totally agreed that they had difficulties understanding what a level means** During the discussion of a meeting, some teachers argued that at first the metaphor is quite abstract, and it is needed to recall and interpretthe meanings of each element [Observer-1]; but once the elements were understood, it was easy [Observer-2]EEE Meeting Legans, 27-28 May 2013 16. 16RESULTSMNAC Discovering Vic Discovering lHospitaletFollowing themetaphor16/36 students dont like tobe forced to answer thequestions until reaching thecorrect solution52/63 students followed themetaphor25/56 students ful