Games, Simulations and Gamification in Learning Design and Delivery

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What role should games, simulations and gamification play in learning design and delivery?Games, gamification and game-based learning have entered into the vocabulary of trainers, elearning developers and instructional designers in the past few years. While the use of games for learning seems like a good match, questions arise. How should games be integrated into the curriculum? Can attitudes and behavior change result from playing a game? What elements of games can learning designers borrow from game designers? The answer to these questions can be found in the research on game-based learning. This interactive presentation includes many examples of using game-based learning for performance improvement and highlights how organizations have used games to achieve learning success. Discover how research-based practices fit in with today's fast-paced need for quick, effective instruction.

Text of Games, Simulations and Gamification in Learning Design and Delivery

  • 1. Games,SimulationsandGamificationin LearningDesignandDeliveryByKarlM.KappBloomsburgUniversityApril26,2012 Twitter:@kkapp

2. Agenda 12 What are 3 principles for addingHow do you apply game-basedgamification and game-ideas tostrategies to the presentation oflearning curriculumslearning content?34Six ways gamification impactsFour motivational aspects of gameslearning design and developmentthat improve learning recall andapplication? 3. GoogleKappNoteswww.kaplaneduneering.com/kappnotesBlogBookTour LearningCircuitsBlog 2012NewBook: TheGamificationofLearningandInstructionSeptember2011TrainingQuarterlyArticleImprovingTraining:ThinkingLikeaGameDeveloperJuly2011T&DArticleMatchingtheRightInstructiontotheRightContent 4. BasedontheBook. 5. LetsPlay 6. Elements of Games 7. What Research SaysaboutGames for Learning 8. PercentagesofImpact Typeof%Higher Knowledge/ Retention Declarative 11% Procedural14% Retention9%Sitzmann,T.(2011)Ametaanalyticexaminationoftheinstructionaleffectivenessofcomputerbasedsimulationgames.PersonnelPsychology .Reviewof65studies 9. PercentagesofImpactItwasntthegame,itwaslevel Typeofofactivityinthegame.%Higher Knowledge/ Retention Declarative 11% Inotherwords,theengagement Procedural ofthelearnerinthegameleads 14% tolearning. Retention 9%Sitzmann,T.(2011)Ametaanalyticexaminationoftheinstructionaleffectivenessofcomputerbasedsimulationgames.PersonnelPsychology .Reviewof65studies 10. Dosimulation/gameshavetobeentertainingtobe educational? 11. NOSitzmann,T.(2011)Ametaanalyticexaminationoftheinstructionaleffectivenessofcomputerbasedsimulationgames.PersonnelPsychology . 12. Simulation/gamesbuildmoreconfidenceforonthejobapplicationoflearnedknowledge thanclassroominstruction.20%higher confidencelevels. Sitzmann,T.(2011)Ametaanalyticexaminationoftheinstructionaleffectiveness ofcomputerbasedsimulationgames.PersonnelPsychology . 13. Amathfactsgamedeployedonahandledcomputer encouragedlearnerstocompletegreaternumberof problemsatanincreasedlevelofdifficulty. Learnersplayingthehandheldgamecompletednearly3timesthenumberofproblemsin19days andvoluntarilyincreasedthelevelofdifficulty.Lee,J.,Luchini,K.,Michael,B.,Norris,C.,&Soloway,E.(2004).Morethanjustfunandgames:Assessingthevalueofeducationalvideogamesintheclassroom.PaperpresentedattheCHI04ExtendedAbstractsonHumanFactorsinComputingSystems,Vienna,Austria. 14. Engagement Learning Game Game PedagogyAdaptedfromAldrich,C.LearningbyDoing.Pfeiffer,page80 15. Instructionalgamesshouldbeembeddedininstructionalprogramsthatincludedebriefingandfeedback.Engagement Instructionalsupporttohelplearners Educational understandhowtousethegameincreases Simulation instructionaleffectivenessofthegamingGame experience.PedagogyHays,R.T.(2005).Theeffectivenessofinstructionalgames:Aliteraturereviewanddiscussion.NavalAirWarfareCenterTrainingSystemsDivision(No2005004).Aldrich,C.LearningbyDoing.Pfeiffer,page80 16. Recommendations1) Provideacontextforthelearning.2) Dontfocusonentertainment.3) Carefullycraftthesimulation/gametoprovide opportunitiestoincreaseengagementandinteractivity toincreaselearning. 17. Use game-based mechanics,aesthetics and game thinking toengage people, motivate action,promote learning, and solve problems. Gamification 18. Four Elements ofGames that Aid Learning1. Stories & Challenges2. Levels3. Feedback4. Freedom to Fail 19. Stories&Challenges 20. Provide a challengeJones,B.,Valdez,G.,Norakowski,J.,&Rasmussen,C.(1994).Designinglearningandtechnologyforeducationalreform.NorthCentralRegionalEducationalLaboratory.[Online].Available:http://www.ncrtec.org/capacity/profile/profwww.htm andSchlechty,P.C.(1997).Inventingbetterschools:Anactionplanforeducationalreform.SanFrancisco,CA:JosseyBass 21. RedesigntheInstructionto StartwithaChallenge 22. InvestigatoryTraining CourseObjectives IdentifytheFormsRequiredforanInvestigation PracticeInterviewTechniques UnderstandandFollowtheInvestigationModel 23. ItisyourfirstdayonthejobasaninvestigatorandJane,anemployeeinAccounting,justaccusedherbossofembezzling$10,000.Whatisthefirstthingyouneedtodo? 24. ResearchershavefoundthattheYep,Peopletendtorememberfacts humanbrainhasanaturalaffinityformoreaccuratelyiftheyencounter narrativeconstruction. theminastoryratherthaninalist.Andtheyratelegalargumentsasmore convincingwhenbuiltintonarrative talesratherthanonlegalprecedent.Carey,B.(2007)thisisYourLife(andHowYouTellit).TheNewYorkTimes.MelanieGreenhttp://www.unc.edu/~mcgreen/research.html 25. Story Elements1. Characters2. Plot (something has to happen).3. Tension 4. Resolution5. Conclusion 26. NikePlus StatsforKarl 27. Challenge and Consolidation Good games offer players a setof challenging problems and then let them solve these problemsuntil they have virtually routinized or automated their solutions.Games then throw a new class of problem at the players requiringthem to rethink their now, taken-for-granted mastery, learnsomething new, and integrate this new learning into their oldmastery.James Paul Gee,University of Wisconsin-Madison 28. Recommendations Embedfactstobelearnedinthecontextofstories. Startthelearningprocessbyprovidingachallengetothelearner. Provideaprogressionfromsimpletomoredifficulttasks. Usestoriesthatarerelatedtothecontextofthedesiredlearningoutcome. 29. Levels 30. Scaffolding:Processofcontrollingthetaskelementsthatinitiallyarebeyondthelearnerscapacity. GuidedPractice.Stepbystepinstructionsandthenfadingofinstruction 31. Oncethattaskisaccomplished,the learneristhenledtoaccomplishanothergoalwhichbuildsupontheprevious. 32. LevelOne:Talkingwiththe receptionist. 33. LevelTwo:Talkingwiththenursegatekeeper. 34. LevelThree:Talkingwiththe physician. 35. LevelOne:Demonstration 36. LevelTwo: Guided Practice 37. LevelThree:PerformanceAssessment 38. Recommendations Providedifferententrypointsintotheinstruction. Providedifferentlearnerexperienceswithinthesameelearningmodule. Considerlevelinguplearnerchallenges. 39. Feedback 40. GameslikeTheSimsprovidefeedbackonmanydimensionswhichprovide opportunitiestoconsidertradeoffsandhigherlevelcognitivethinking. 41. Leaderboardsprovide opportunitiesforplayerstoreceivefeedbackabouttheirperformanceascomparedto others. 42. Recommendations Provideauthenticandrealisticfeedback. Feedbackshouldbecontinuousthroughoutthelearning. Feedbackshouldbeinstructionalandprovideknowledgeoflearnersperformance. Allowlearnerstocreatetheirownsocialleaderboardoffriends. 43. FreedomtoFail 44. Recommendations Allowfailure. Provideformultipleattempts. Focusonlearningfrommistakesandfailure. 45. Putting It All Together 46. FosteringProSocialBehaviorGreitemeyer,T.&Osswald,S.(2010)EffectiveofProsocial gamesonprosocial behavior.JournalofPersonalityandSocialPsychology.Vol.98.No.2.,211221. 47. 28%helpedtopickuppencils 48. 33%helpedtopickuppencils 49. 67%helpedtopickuppencils 50. 22%intervened 51. 56%intervened 52. LearnedProcedure 53. Go aheadjump in! 54. Summary 12 What are 3 principles for addingHow do you apply game-basedgamification and game-ideas tostrategies to the presentation oflearning curriculumslearning content?34Six ways gamification impactsFour motivational aspects of gameslearning design and developmentthat improve learning recall andapplication? 55. Questions/More Information http://www.kaplaneduneering.com/kappnotes/ Recommendedbooks SamplesandExamples Email:kkapp@bloomu.edu Email:karlkapp@gmail.com Twitter:@kkapp Pinterest:GamificationHappenings Facebook:http://www.facebook.com/gamificationLITheGamificationofLearningandInstruction