Framework for Promoting Learning in Afterschool Programs

Embed Size (px)

Text of Framework for Promoting Learning in Afterschool Programs

  • 1.Framework for Promoting Learning in Afterschool Programs SRI International Community Network for Youth Development

2. Practices to Promote Afterschool Learning Positive culture of learning Meaningful learning activities Effective adult assistance Support for self-regulation Positive connections to school Support for parent engagement in youths learning Organizational practices Access to high quality resources for organizing curriculum Staff preparation and ongoing professional development targeted to academic assistance Policies and strategies that promote consistency and persistence in participation Afterschool Learning Outcomes Moving to Mastery Persistence in intellectual tasks Ability to Self- Regulate Skills for Working with Others Attacbment and Commitment to School School Practices Challenging assignments that draw on high-quality curriculum Instruction from a qualified, caring teacher Continuous assessment and feedback on learning Coordination and communication with after-school staff External Indicators Grades Attendance Test scores Retention Framework Overview 3. External Indicators Grades Attendance Test scores Retention External Indicators Policy makers, district and school administrators, and many members of the community have come to emphasize certain indicators of learning as important to emphasize. Progress on these indicators is linked to rewards and punishments to schools. Afterschool programs are being asked to report data on these indicators; some programs are being evaluated by how well they influence the indicators (see Dynarski et al., 2003). A framework for afterschool learning must consider how afterschool activities may affect these indicators. The framework must also recognize the critical role schools play in promoting change on these indicators. At best, afterschool programs play a part inbut do not determineindividual students grades, attendance, test scores, or rates of retention. 4. School Practices Challenging assignments that draw on high-quality curriculum Instruction from a qualified, caring teacher Continuous assessment and feedback on learning Coordination and communication with after-school staff School Practices Students who encounter challenging assignments that require them to interpret and synthesize what they know perform better on standardized tests than do students who are given assignments that require them only to recall facts (Newmann, Bryk, & Nagaoka, 2001). 5. School Practices Challenging assignments that draw on high-quality curriculum Instruction from a qualified, caring teacher Continuous assessment and feedback on learning Coordination and communication with after-school staff School Practices Students in schools with certified teachers perform better on measures of achievement than do students in schools with large numbers of teachers with emergency credentials (Oakes, 2004). Teachers subject matter knowledge influences the quality of their instruction, especially their ability to respond to students questions (Carlson, 1998). Students who perceive their teachers care about them are more motivated to learn (Darling-Hammond, 1997; Dickinson & Erb, 1997; Lee, Bryk, & Smith, 1993). 6. School Practices Challenging assignments that draw on high-quality curriculum Instruction from a qualified, caring teacher Continuous assessment and feedback on learning Coordination and communication with after-school staff School Practices Teachers who engage in more frequent assessment of student learning and provide feedback to students on how to improve produce significant learning gains on standardized tests (Black & Wiliam, 1998; Crooks, 1988; Fuchs & Fuchs, 1986). 7. School Practices Challenging assignments that draw on high-quality curriculum Instruction from a qualified, caring teacher Continuous assessment and feedback on learning Coordination and communication with after-school staff School Practices To ensure students have the opportunity to benefit from after-school programming, school staff need to be involved in two-way communication with after-school staff (National Research Council, 2002). 8. Afterschool Learning Outcomes Mastery motivation Persistence in intellectual tasks Self-Regulation Collaborative skills Bonding and commitment to school Afterschool Learning Outcomes Importance and Links to External Indicators: Students who adopt mastery goals for learning approach learning tasks as potentially challenging and as requiring effort to complete. Students who are more concerned with performance-avoidance, that is, preventing others from seeing them fail, tend to give up more easily on difficult tasks, especially if they are low-achieving (Ames & Archer, 1988). Students with mastery goals tend to persist more in the face of difficulty on challenging intellectual tasks (Ames & Archer, 1988). Role of Afterschool Programs Afterschool programs have been successful in promoting mastery goals and in providing youth with opportunities to persist on authentic, challenging tasks (McLaughlin, Irby, & Langman, 1994). 9. Afterschool Learning Outcomes Mastery motivation Persistence in intellectual tasks Self-Regulation Collaborative skills Bonding and commitment to school Afterschool Learning Outcomes Importance and Links to External Indicators Self-regulation is the process by which students plan for, organize, and monitor their own learning. Higher levels of self- regulation are associated with higher achievement levels in school (Butler & Winne, 1995). Role of Afterschool Programs Afterschool programs can improve student self-regulation, particularly students skills in planning and organizing activities and in reflecting on significant experiences associated with participation (Nichols & Steffy, 1999; Youniss & Yates, 1997). 10. Afterschool Learning Outcomes Mastery motivation Persistence in intellectual tasks Self-Regulation Collaborative skills Bonding and commitment to school Afterschool Learning Outcomes Importance and Links to External Indicators Collaborative skills are increasingly important for both schools and the workplace. Cooperative and collaborative learning experiences are positively associated with student achievement (Slavin, 1990; Johnson, Johnson, & Stanne, 2000). Role of Afterschool Programs Afterschool programs can improve students social skills and can also reduce anti-social behaviors (Catalano et al., 1999; Mahoney et al., 2003; Weisman et al., in press). 11. Afterschool Learning Outcomes Mastery motivation Persistence in intellectual tasks Self-Regulation Collaborative skills Bonding and commitment to school Afterschool Learning Outcomes Importance and Links to External Indicators Bonding to school has been cited as an important protective factor in supporting youth development (Cheney et al., 1997). Students vary in their level of identification with school and with doing well in school, a factor that has been used to explain the failure of some groups to do well in school (Ogbu, 1987). Role of Afterschool Programs Afterschool programs can help students feel more connected to school (Catalano et al., 1999; Roth & Brooks-Gunn, 1999). 12. Practices to Promote Afterschool Learning Positive culture of learning Meaningful learning activities Effective adult assistance Support for self-regulation Positive connections to school Support for parent engagement in youths learning Practices to Promote Afterschool Learning Encouraging inquiry as an attitude and approach to difficult situations Providing a program environment where mastery goals are rewarded Discouraging comparisons among participants with respect to school performance 13. Practices to Promote Afterschool Learning Positive culture of learning Meaningful learning activities Effective adult assistance Support for self-regulation Positive connections to school Support for parent engagement in youths learning Practices to Promote Afterschool Learning Relying on authentic intellectual activities to engage youth Organizing activities that connect to youths interests and life experiences Opportunities for collaboration in contexts where a diversity of expertise is needed for success 14. Practices to Promote Afterschool Learning Positive culture of learning Meaningful learning activities Effective adult assistance Support for self-regulation Positive connections to school Support for parent engagement in youths learning Practices to Promote Afterschool Learning Attunement to youths needs and interests Solving problems with youth rather than for them Providing feedback focused on how to improve 15. Practices to Promote Afterschool Learning Positive culture of learning Meaningful learning activities Effective adult assistance Support for self-regulation Positive connections to school Support for parent engagement in youths learning Practices to Promote Afterschool Learning Help with planning for studying, organizing for intellectual tasks, and monitoring progress toward goals Providing youth with experiences of regulating their own learning process in a safe environment Opportunities to reflect on and revise ideas 16. Practices to Promote Afterschool Learning Positive culture of learning Meaningful learning activities Effective adult assistance Support for self-regulation Positive connections to school Support for parent engagement in youths learning Practices to Promote Afterschool Learning Tasks align with and complement schools focus on students individual academic needs Adult staff articulate the importance and value of school learning Adult staff help youth build bridges among the cultural worlds of school, home, and community 17. Practices to Promote Afterschool Learning Positive culture of learning Meaningful learning activities Effective adult assistance Support for self-regulation Positive connections to school Support for parent engagement in youths learning Practices to Promote Afters