2. FOLK NARRATIVES These are stories handed down from the remote past by words of mouth from one generation to another, reflecting the peoples tradition, feelings, beliefs, and judgments.
3. MYTHS These are stories that explain about the actions of the gods, heroes exploits or the elements of natures origins.
4. MYTHS traditional or legendary stories, usually concerning some being or hero or event, with or without a determinable basis of fact or a natural explanation, especially one that is concerned with deities or demigods and explains some practice, rite, or phenomenon of nature.
5. PHILIPPINE MYTHOLOGY The stories of ancient Philippine mythology include deities, creation stories, mythical creatures, and beliefs. Ancient Philippine mythology varies among the many indigenous tribes of the Philippines.
6. PHILIPPINE MYTHOLOGY Some groups during the pre-Spanish conquest era believed in a single Supreme Being who created the world and everything in it, while others chose to worship a multitude of tree and forest deities (diwatas). Diwatas came from the Sanskrit word devata which means "deity", one of the several significant Hindu influences in the Pre- Hispanic religion of the ancient Filipinos.
7. PHILIPPINE MYTHOLOGY Because the country has many islands and is inhabited by different ethnic groups, Philippine Mythology and superstitions are very diverse. However, certain similarities exist among these groups, such as the belief in Heaven (Kaluwalhatian or Kalangitan), Hell (Impiyerno), and human soul (kaluluwa).
8. PHILIPPINE GODS AND GODDESSES Philippine Mythology
9. AGUI - god of fire; brother of Agwe AGWE - god of waters AMAN SINAYA - god of the sea, fishing, and seafaring AMANIKABLE - god of the hunt, the protector of huntsmen AMIHAN - the bird who stirred up the waters and the heavens ANITUN TABU - goddess of the wind and the rain APOLAKI - god of the sun, lord of war, son of Bathala, patron of warriors ASPENE - the shell goddess
10. BAGOBO - god of war BATHALA - king of the gods, ruler of the heavens, creator of humanity BAYOA - god of pacts DALLANG - goddess of beauty DAYEA - goddess of secrets DELTISE - god of mambabarangs DETINOS - god of evil; enemy of Bathala DIAN MASALANTA - goddess of love, pregnancy, childbirth, became known as "Maria Makiling" DIHAS - goddess of medicinal herbs
11. HABAGAT - god of winds HALMISTA - god of Magic HANAN - god of the morning HAYO - god of the sea HUKLOBAN - goddess of death IDEANALE - goddess of agriculture and animal husbandry KALING - god of thunder KAPALARAN - Although he is not a God, he is still considered as a high power. He has the power to change destiny at his will.
12. KIDUL - god of earthquakes KILUBANSA - god of healing LAKAMBUWI - god of gluttony, food, and eating LAKAPATI - deity of fertility and cultivated fields LALAHON - goddess of volcanoes LINGA - god of disease, although unlike Manggagaway, he cures them MAGUAYEN - ferryboat god, ferries souls to hell MALYARI - god of strength and bravery
13. MANGARAGAN - goddess of war MANGGAGAWAY - goddess of disease, poses as a healer and inflicts terror by inducing maladies instead; one of Sitans helper MANISALAT - god of broken families MAYARI - one-eyed, beautiful goddess and ruler of the moon, daughter of Bathala OGHEP - god of mountains PAMAHRES - god of knowledge PASIPO - god of music
14. PUGHE - the king of the Dwendes of the North PUNHO - god of trees SIDAPA - god of death SIGINAGURAN - god of hell SIRENHA - goddess of fishes SITAN - god of the afterlife, guardian of the realm of the spirits SODOP - goddess of gold SOMILGE - goddess of magic, queen of witchery TALA - goddess of the stars; daughter of Bathala
15. FOLKTALES These are about the origins of the world. They are not factual but are told for entertainment. The characters in folktales are ordinary humans or animals that act like humans. Often, the humans are peasant or people of the lower class who have better values than the rich and powerful.
16. Why the Sky is High (Tagalog) How the First Head Was Taken (Igorot) The Man with the Coconuts (Tinguian) The Boy Who Became a Stone (Tinguian) Dogedog (Tinguian)
17. FABLES These are stories that have animal characters. They intend to teach lessons or moral, which is usually stated at the end of the fable.
18. LEGENDS These are widely told stories about the past. They are considered factual by those who tell them, and many have some basis in historical fact. Legends often include elements of magic and supernatural.
19. The Legend of Rice (Ang Alamat ng Palay) The Legend and the Short History of Pila, Laguna The Legend of Liliw, Laguna (Ang Alamat ng Liliw) The Legend of Gapan in Nueva Ecija (Alamat ng Gapan, Nueva Ecija) Ang Alamat ng Ilog Pasig (The Legend of Pasig River) Ang Alamat ng Lawa ng Sampalok (The Legend of Sampalok Lake) Ang Alamat ng Malate (The Legend of Malate)
20. Elements of Story Setting Characters Plot Theme Point of View Conflict
22. Characters (Antagonists/Protagonists)
24. Parts of the plot Plot exposition complication climax resolution denouement
26. Point of view It is a device used by the writer in presenting his idea.
27. First Person. The story is told from the view of I. The narrator is either the protagonist (main character) and directly affected by unfolding events, or the narrator is a secondary character telling the story revolving around the protagonist. Choose a Point of View
28. Second Person. The story is told directly to you, with the reader as a participant in the action. You laughed loudly at the antics of the clown. You clapped your hands with joy. Choose a Point of View
29. Third Person. The story tells what he, she, or it does. The third-person narrators perspective can be limited (telling the story from one characters viewpoint) or omniscient (where the narrator knows everything about all of the characters). Choose a Point of View
31. Types of Conflict Man vs. Man Man vs. Society Man vs. Himself Man vs. Nature Man vs. Fate (God)
32. Man vs. Man One character in a story has a problem with one or more of the other characters.
33. A characters has a conflict or problem with some element of society- the school, the law, the accepted way of doing things and so on. Man vs. Society
34. Man vs. Himself A character has trouble deciding what to do in a particular situation.
35. Man vs. Nature A character has a problem with some natural happening a snowstrom, an avalanche, the bitter cold, or any other elements common to nature.
36. Man vs. Fate (God) A character has to battle what seems to be an uncontrollable problem. Whenever the problem seems to be a strange or unbelievable coincidence, fate can be considered as the cause of the conflict.