Faulty Sentences - Basic Writing Skills

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  1. 1. December 29, 2015 ENDALEW MOLLA Basic Writing Skills Presentation Endalew Molla (PhD Candidate) WELCOME TO: 1
  2. 2. December 29, 2015 ENDALEW MOLLA Faulty Sentences 2
  3. 3. 1. SENTENCE FRAGMENT December 29, 2015 ENDALEW MOLLA Sentence fragment is an incomplete sentence which lacks either subject, verb or object. The correction mechanism is simply adding the missed word or phrase. Examples 1. Even if we wanted to watch football match. 2. A nervous, pressured feeling and a headache. 3
  4. 4. December 29, 2015 ENDALEW MOLLA Correction 1.Even if we wanted to watch football match, there is no electric power. 2.Ahmed feels a nervous, pressured feeling and a headache. 4
  5. 5. Exercise 1. To catch a Taxi and hurry downtown. 2. Although she wanted to visit a restaurant. 5
  6. 6. December 29, 2015 ENDALEW MOLLA Correction 1.We decided to catch a Taxi and hurry downtown. 2.Although she wanted to visit a restaurant, she has an appointment with her husband. 6
  7. 7. 2. SUBJECT-VERB DISAGREEMENT December 29, 2015 ENDALEW MOLLA In English language the subject and the verb should agree in number. If there is number mismatch between the subject and the verb the correction mechanism will be as follows. If the subject is singular, the verb should also be singular and vice-versa. 7
  8. 8. December 29, 2015 ENDALEW MOLLA Examples 1. She fetch water everyday. 2. We wants to eat breakfast. 3. The commander with his secretary admit the fault. Correction 1. She fetches water everyday. 2. We want to eat breakfast. 3. The commander with his secretary admits the fault. 8
  9. 9. December 29, 2015 ENDALEW MOLLA Exercises 1.Global warming have become a serious problem. 2.Some one want to see you in the afternoon. 3.Neither my friend nor his classmate knows the answer. 4.In front of him, there was six soldiers. 9
  10. 10. December 29, 2015 ENDALEW MOLLA Correction 1.Global warming has become a serious problem. 2.Some one wants to see you in the afternoon. 3.Neither my friend nor his classmate know the answer. 4.In front of him, there were six soldiers. 10
  11. 11. 3. FAULTY PARALLELISM December 29, 2015 ENDALEW MOLLA Again in the English sentence, words, phrases or clauses in a series should be in the same grammatical form. If a series of words, phrases or clauses is not in the same grammatical form, the problem of faulty parallelism will occur. The correction mechanism is changing the form of the different word, phrase or clause to its equivalent based on the tense of the sentence. 11
  12. 12. December 29, 2015 ENDALEW MOLLA Example 1 All night long the music from the next apartment was banging, thumping and pounded so loud. Correction All night long the music from the next apartment was banging, thumping and pounding so loud. 12
  13. 13. December 29, 2015 ENDALEW MOLLA Example 2 My sister likes wearing coloured hats, dressing in tight clothes and to go to classic movies. Correction My sister likes wearing coloured hats, dressing in tight clothes and going to classic movies. 13
  14. 14. December 29, 2015 ENDALEW MOLLA Exercises 1.While Yodit studied mathematics and worked on psychology, her husband was watching the baby. 2.Sky jumping and motor race are sports that require to consider and manipulation of velocity and wind resistance. 3.Walking and to swim are good exercises for health. 14
  15. 15. December 29, 2015 ENDALEW MOLLA Correction 1.While Yodit studied mathematics and worked on psychology, her husband watched the baby. 2.Sky jumping and motor racing are sports that require consideration and manipulation of velocity and wind resistance. 3.Walking and swimming are good exercises for health. 15
  16. 16. 4. RUN-ON SENTENCES December 29, 2015 ENDALEW MOLLA A run-on sentence consists of two or more complete thoughts which are placed within the same sentence without any punctuation to separate them. How can we correct run-on sentences? 1. Creating two separate sentences. 2. Connecting the two or more thoughts by using semi colon. 3. Joining them by using a comma and a coordinating conjunction (and, but, so, yet) or subordinate conjunction (although, because, since) 16
  17. 17. December 29, 2015 ENDALEW MOLLA Examples My young sister will visit us this weekend I probably will not have much time to study. Correction My young sister will visit us this weekend. I probably will not have much time to study. Or My young sister will visit us this weekend; I probably will not have much time to study. Or My young sister will visit us this weekend, therefore I probably will not have much time to study. 17
  18. 18. December 29, 2015 ENDALEW MOLLA Exercises 1.Anatomy is a field of study in medical science physiology is another field of study. 2.The civil war ended in 1983 the period of reconstruction followed. 3.Nell Armstrong was the first human to walk on the moon this event occurred in 1969. 18
  19. 19. December 29, 2015 ENDALEW MOLLA Correction 1.Anatomy is a field of study in medical science; physiology is another field of study. 2.The civil war ended in 1983, then the period of reconstruction followed. 3.Nell Armstrong was the first human to walk on the moon, and this event occurred in 1969. 19
  20. 20. 5. DANGLING MODIFIER December 29, 2015 ENDALEW MOLLA It is obvious that a modifier and the thing to be modified are inseparable parts of a sentence. Dangling modifier problem occurs when the sentence contains the modifier without the thing to be modified. To check whether a sentence has dangling modifier problem or not, we can ask a question Who?. If we cant get answer, surely the sentence has dangling modifier problem. The correction is adding appropriate word to be modified. 20
  21. 21. December 29, 2015 ENDALEW MOLLA Example 1 After getting off the bus, the driver pulled. Who get off the bus? It is not clear. Correction After I get off the bus, the driver pulled. Now, who get off the bus? I! 21
  22. 22. December 29, 2015 ENDALEW MOLLA Example 2 While sitting under the apple tree, ants started to attack. Who sits under the apple tree? We dont know. Correction While Abebe sits under the apple tree, ants started to attack. Now, who sits under the apple tree? It is clear, Abebe! 22
  23. 23. December 29, 2015 ENDALEW MOLLA Exercises 1.Watching the Olympic games eagerly, the power went off. 2.After deciding to travel on foot, it begins to rain. 3.Being nervous, the test seemed more difficult than it was. 23
  24. 24. December 29, 2015 ENDALEW MOLLA Correction 1.While we watch the Olympic games eagerly, the power went off. 2.After they decided to travel on foot, it begins to rain. 3.When she becomes nervous, the test seemed more difficult than it was. 24
  25. 25. 6. MISPLACED MODIFIER December 29, 2015 ENDALEW MOLLA In the English language, a modifier should come immediately before or after the word that it modifies. If the modifier and the word to be modified are written far apart, the problem of misplaced modifier will occur. 25
  26. 26. EXAMPLE December 29, 2015 ENDALEW MOLLA Smashed and fired, my mother served the meat to our table. The modifier is smashed and fired and the word to be modified is the meat. But the modifier is not written immediately before or after the word it modifies. Correction My mother served smashed and fired meat to our table 26
  27. 27. EXAMPLE 2 December 29, 2015 ENDALEW MOLLA I saw a dress in a magazine that costs 1,000 birr. 27
  28. 28. CORRECTION December 29, 2015 ENDALEW MOLLA 1. In a magazine, I saw a dress that costs 1,000 birr. 2. I saw a dress that costs 1,000 birr in a magazine. 28
  29. 29. EXERCISES December 29, 2015 ENDALEW MOLLA 1. A national problem, the governors of all the states meet to discuss homelessness. 2. The book was checked out by the librarian that a student had returned late. 3. Angry with the delay, the bus driver finally arrived and the passengers murmured. 29
  30. 30. CORRECTIONS December 29, 2015 ENDALEW MOLLA 1. The governors of all the states meet to discuss homelessness: a national problem. 2. The book that a student had returned late was checked out by the librarian. 3. Angry with the delay, the passengers murmured and finally the bus driver arrived. 30
  31. 31. 7. CHOPPY SENTENCE December 29, 2015 ENDALEW MOLLA Choppy sentence occurs when two or more ideas that can be expressed within a single sentence are written in separate sentences. To amend this problem, we can use the following mechanisms. Join them with a comma and coordinating/subordinate conjunctions. 31
  32. 32. December 29, 2015 ENDALEW MOLLA Join the sentences by using a semi colon and a conjunctive adverb (however, therefore, thus) Join them with a semi-colon if they dont need any conjunction. 32
  33. 33. EXAMPLE 1 December 29, 2015 ENDALEW MOLLA Chala invited us dinner. The invitation is at the new restaurant down the street. The restaurant is excellent with fair price. Correction Chala invited us dinner at the new restaurant down the street; and that restaurant is excellent with fair price. 33
  34. 34. EXAMPLE 2 December 29, 2015 ENDALEW MOLLA The lecturer did not discuss the chapter on centrifugal force. The exam included several questions on centrifugal force. Every student scored less than half. Correction The lecturer did not discuss the chapter on centrifugal force; however the exam included several questions from the topic as a result, every student scored less than half. 34
  35. 35. EXERCISES December 29, 2015 ENDALEW MOLLA 1. Lalibela is an incredible sight. It was built in the twelfth century. It serves as major source of income for the country. 2. A field study observes subjects in their natural setting. Only a small number of subjects can be studied at one time. 3. The teacher returned our test papers. He did not comment on them. We have done them carelessly. 35
  36. 36. CORRECTIONS December 29, 2015 ENDALEW MOLLA 1. Lalibela, which was built in the twelfth century is an incredible sight; and it is the major source of income for the country. 2. A field study observes subjects in their natural settings; but only a small number of subjects can be studied at one time. 3. The teacher returned our test papers and he did not comment on them; because we have done them carelessly. 36
  37. 37. 8. PRONOUN REFERENCE December 29, 2015 ENDALEW MOLLA A pronoun refers a specific noun and it is used to replace that noun. However, it must be clear to which noun the pronoun refers. To make sentences free from pronoun reference problem, we need to focus on the following rule. 37
  38. 38. December 29, 2015 ENDALEW MOLLA A pronoun must refer to a specific word or words. Avoid vague or unclear references. Example They said on the evening news that the president would visit France. Who are they? not clear or vague Correction Ministers said on the evening news that the president would visit France. 38
  39. 39. December 29, 2015 ENDALEW MOLLA If more than one noun is present, it must be clear to which noun the pronoun refers. Example Almaz told Kedja that she has passed the exam. Who has passed the exam? Almaz or Kedja? 39
  40. 40. CORRECTION December 29, 2015 ENDALEW MOLLA 1. Almaz told Kedja: I have passed the exam. 2. Kedja told Almaz: I have passed the exam. 3. Almaz told Kedja: You have passed the exam. 4. Kedja told Almaz: You have passed the exam. 40
  41. 41. EXERCISE December 29, 2015 ENDALEW MOLLA 1. The teacher punish the student as a result his father becomes angry. 2. He ordered citizens to pay tax. 3. Lecturers told their students that they will have meeting tonight. 41
  42. 42. CORRECTIONS December 29, 2015 ENDALEW MOLLA 1. The teacher punish the student as a result the students father becomes angry. 2. The president ordered citizens to pay tax. 3. Lecturers told their students: We have meeting tonight. or Lecturers told their students : You have meeting tonight. 42
  43. 43. 9. PRONOUN ANTECEDENT DISAGREEMENT December 29, 2015 ENDALEW MOLLA A pronoun (he, she, it) substitutes for a noun and must agree in person, number and gender(male/female) with its antecedent. To write sentences that are free from pronoun antecedent disagreement, we need to focus on the following points. 43
  44. 44. December 29, 2015 ENDALEW MOLLA 1. If the pronoun is singular, the antecedent should be singular and vise versa. 2. Some indefinite pronouns are plural: others are singular. 3. If a noun refers something that cant be counted, use a singular pronoun to refer it. 44
  45. 45. December 29, 2015 ENDALEW MOLLA 4. Use plural pronoun to refer two or more nouns linked by and. 5. If a pronoun substitutes for two or more nouns joined by or or nor, the pronoun agrees with the noun it is nearer to. 45
  46. 46. EXAMPLES December 29, 2015 ENDALEW MOLLA Fatuma wanted to lend me her class notes. Farmers produce cash crops; many of them made a lot of money. One of the team members couldnt find his keys. Both of the teachers said they planned to leave for vacation in July. 46
  47. 47. December 29, 2015 ENDALEW MOLLA Too much sugar is dangerous for health, so it has to be minimized from our table. Alemu and Sara lost their keys. Either Mr. Gemeda or his sons will drive their car. Neither the committee members nor the manager bought cloth for his children. 47
  48. 48. EXERCISES December 29, 2015 ENDALEW MOLLA 1. Hellen and I are going to pool (her/mine/our) money to buy a car. 2. Abel and Beza brought (his/her/their) worksheets. 3. Each student received (his/her/their) transcript by mail. 4. Either the sweater or the shirt will be returned to the store because (it/they) came from the wrong stockroom. 48
  49. 49. December 29, 2015 ENDALEW MOLLA 1.Everyone opened (his/her/their) books on page 50. 2.When the play was over, the audience rose from (its/their) seat to give a standing ovation. 3.No one handed in (his/her/their) exam before the time was up. 49
  50. 50. 10. COMMA SPLICE December 29, 2015 ENDALEW MOLLA This is miss use of Comma ( , ) in a sentence. The comma should be placed on its appropriate place in a sentence. Study the following sentences, they all have comma splice problem. If, I study hard I will pass the exam. I would visit Gore, if I were you. 50

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