- 1.Efforts by: Archie XI-A
2. I. Evolution Of Computers - talks about changes in hardware technologies. Evolution of Computing Devices The Generation of Computers II. Evolution Of Storage And Display Technologies - talks about changes in enabling technologies. III. Evolution Of Software - talks about the changes in software over time. Evolution of Operating Systems Evolution of Programming Language Evolution of Software Applications 3. Abacus Developed around 3000 years BC by the Mesopotamians and later improved by Chinese. An abacus consists of beads divided into two parts which are movable on the rods of the two parts. Addition and multiplication etc. of numbers is done by using the place value of the digits of the numbers and position of beads in the abacus. Napiers Logs and Bones Also called Napiers rods, are numbered rods (10 in total) which can be used to perform multiplication of any number by a number 2-9. 3000 BC 1550 to 1617 4. Blaise Pascals Adding Machine (1642) A machine made up of gears which were used for adding numbers quickly. It consisted of numbered toothed wheels having unique position values. The rotation of wheels controlled the addition and subtraction operations. This machine was capable of carry- transfer automatically. Leibnitz Calculator (1671) Gottfried Leibnitz, a German mathematician, improved the adding machine and constructed a new machine that was able to perform multiplication and division as well. 5. Jacquards Loom (1801) Joseph Jacquard manufactured punched cards and used them to control looms in. Thus the entire control weaving process was automatic. The entire operation was under a programs control. With the historic invention of punched cards, the era of storing and retrieving information started that greatly influenced the later inventions and advancements.(1822) Babbages Difference Engine Charles Babbage, a professor of mathematics, developed Difference Engine machine to calculate logarithmic tables to a high degree of precision. The difference engine was made to calculate various mathematical 6. Analytical Engine Charles Babbage designed an Analytical Engine, a general-purpose machine, a real ancestor of the modern day computer. The Analytical Engine was mainly in Conceptual phase and was never completed in form of a real machine. Analytical Engine was capable of performing different functions based on programming; came up with important concepts like central processor, storage area, memory, input-output devices and two major innovations like comparisons and modification of stored information. (1833) First Program (1834) Ada Byron, Lady Lovelace(Daughter of poet Lord Byran) impressed with the concept of the Analytical Engine created plans for how the machine could calculate Bernoulli numbers. This is regarded as the first computer program, and she is the first programmer. The US Department of Defense named a language Ada in her honour in 1979. 7. Holleriths Machine (1887) Herman Hollerith(1869-1926) fabricated what was dreamt of by Charles Babbage. He fabricated the first electromechanical punched-card tabulator that used punched cards for input, output and instructions. This machine was used by American Department of Census to compile their 1880 census data and was able to complete compilation in 3 years which earlier used to take around 10 years. Later Hollerith founded a company that became International Business Machines(IBM) to market the technology.(1939) First Electronic Computer The prototype of first electronic computer was assembled by John Atansoff and Cliford Barry, which was completed in 1942 using 300 vacuum tubes. John Atansoff came up with the concept of using binary numbers, which is still in use. 8. Mark-I (1943) Prof. Howard Aiken constructed Mark-I, an automatic, general purpose electro-mechanical computer, which could multiply two 10-digit numbers in 5 seconds a record at that time. (1946) ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer) Developed by Presper Eckert and John Mauchly, ENIAC was made up of 18,000 vacuum tubes and occupied a 30 * 50 feet room. Programming was done by plugging wires into a patch panel and was 5000 times faster than the Howard MARK-I. (1946) John van Neumann Architecture- Stored- Programming Concept Dr. John van Neumann suggested the pioneer stored program 9. Key Features Big and clumsy computers that used vacuum tubes Not very reliable as Electric failure occurred regularly. Large air conditioners were necessary because the computers generated lot of heat. Used stored program concept Programming in machine language Remarks Very large space requirement High electricity consumption. Generated lot of heat. Slow operating speed Restricted computing capacity Limited programming capabilities Input and output devices: Either No Input Devices (Hardware programs ) or Control Panel with Switches (used in UNIVAC) Memory Type : Magnetic Drums Storage: Punched cards and paper Tapes FIRST GENERATION (1940-1956) Vacuum Tubes The first generation computers were huge ,slow, expensive and often unreliable. It used vacuum tubes for circuitry.Major computers : ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator And Calculator), EDVAC (Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer), EDSAC( Electronic Delay Storage Automatic Computer), UNIVAC-I (built by Univac division of Remington Rand) 10. SECOND GENERATION(1956-1963)- Transistors The creation of transistor sparked the production of a wave of second generation computer. Transistor was a small device used to transfer the electronic signals across a resistor . Transistors had many advantages compared to vacuum tubes. Key Features Transistor replaced vacuum tubes. Smaller in size compared to 1st generation computers. Generated lesser heat than earlier computer. Lower electricity consumption. More reliable and faster . Programming in machine language as well as assembly language. Remarks Not General purpose computers - mostly suitable to scientific and bulk data processing tasks only; not for business purposes. The machines were costly. Frequent maintenance required. Input and Output Devices : Teletypewriters and punched cards Memory Type : Magnetic Core Storages: Magnetic Tape, Hard-disk Major computers :- IBM 1400 and 7000 Series, Control Data 3600 etc. 11. THIRD GENERATION (1964-1971) - Integrated Circuits The development of integrated circuits (IC) in 1961, signaled the beginning of the third generation computers the integrated circuit technology, which had reduced the size and cost of computers enormously. It is also known as semiconductor. Key Features Integrated circuits Computers smaller, faster and more reliable Lower power consumption Remarks Proved to be highly reliable, relatively inexpensive , and faster. High-level languages developed Size of main memories reached about 4 MBs and storage drive capacities reached up to 100 MBs Less human labour was required at assembly stage. Input and Output Devices : Keyboards, Printer Memory Type : Core Memory & DRAM chips Storage : Hard disk, Floppy Disc Major computers : IBM-360, ICL-1900,2900 & 2903, Honeywell 316 or 6000 12. Key Features Large and Very Large Integrated circuits, (LSI & VLSI) Microcomputer series such as IBM and APPLE developed. Portable computers developed. Great development in data communication. Programming in High Level Languages. Remarks Computer costs came down so rapidly that these found places at most offices and homes. Smaller and faster. More speed, Reliability, Storage capability Personal software Industry boomed. Input and Output Devises : Keyboard, mouse, joysticks, speakers etc. Memory : Memory chips Storage: Hard disk, Floppy disks, CD,DVD, Blu-ray discs. Major computers: Pentium(p5,dual core, quad core etc.), Power PC, AMD, Apple, Dell etc. FOURTH GENERATION (1971-PRESENT)- Microprocessors In 1971 Intel created the first microprocessor and the era of fourth generation computers started . During the fourth generation, hardware technology such as silicone chips, microprocessor, and storage devices were invented. Microprocessor is developed for computer memory and logic. 13. Key Features Parallel-processing- many processors are grouped to function as one large group processor. Superconductors- it is a conductor through which electricity can travel without any resistance resulting in faster transfer of information between the components of a computer. Remarks Found applications in: Intelligent systems that could control the route of a missile and defense-systems that could fend off attacks Word processors that could be controlled by means of speech recognition. Programs that could translate documents from one language to another. Input and Output Devices : Keyboard, mouse, joysticks, voice input Memory : Memory chips Storage : Hard disk, CD, DVD, Flash memories, blu-ray discs, cloud FIFTH GENERATION (PRESENTS & BEYOND)- Artificial Intelligence The fifth generation computers are technologically advance and are still being developed to become more efficient, though there are some applications, such as voice recognition, advanced robotics that are being used today. The use of parallel processing and superconductors is helping to make artificial intelligence a reality.