1. Metadata of the chapter that will be visualized online Chapter Title Evaluation of Mobile Teaching and Learning Projects, an Introduction Copyright Year 2015 Copyright Holder Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg Corresponding Author Family Name Farley Particle Given Name Helen Sufx Division/Department Australian Digital Futures Institute Organization/University University of Southern Queensland Street Y304, Toowoomba Campus, West Street City Toowoomba State QLD Postcode Q 4350 Country Australia Phone +61 7 4631 1738 Email email@example.com Author Family Name Murphy Particle Given Name Angela Sufx Division/Department Australian Digital Futures Institute Organization/University University of Southern Queensland Street Y304, Toowoomba Campus, West Street City Toowoomba State QLD Postcode Q 4350 Country Australia Phone +61 7 4631 1638 Email firstname.lastname@example.org Abstract In the decade and a half since the beginning of the new millennium, mobile computing technologies have evolved rapidly, enabling increasingly sophisticated methods of communication and interaction. As a result of the incremental improvements in design, tendency toward reduced size, increased functionality, improvements in data storage capability, and the reliability and ubiquity of the networks that support them, mobile technologies are increasingly perceived as essential to the conduct of peoples everyday lives (Evans-Cowley 2010).
2. 1 Evaluation of Mobile Teaching and Learning Projects, an Introduction 2Q1 Helen Farley* and Angela Murphy 3 Australian Digital Futures Institute, University of Southern Queensland, Toowoomba, QLD, Australia 4Q2 In the decade and a half since the beginning of the new millennium, mobile computing technologies have 5 evolved rapidly, enabling increasingly sophisticated methods of communication and interaction. As a 6 result of the incremental improvements in design, tendency toward reduced size, increased functionality, 7 improvements in data storage capability, and the reliability and ubiquity of the networks that support 8 them, mobile technologies are increasingly perceived as essential to the conduct of peoples everyday 9 lives (Evans-Cowley 2010). 10 In the educational context, ubiquitous connectivity and the portable nature of these devices facilitate 11 access to collaborative and contextualized learning experiences which translate into greater ownership of 12 learning processes (Wong 2012a). Furthermore, these technologies are becoming ever more affordable, 13 presenting unique opportunities for facilitating the exible delivery of contextualized learning experi- 14 ences for diverse student cohorts. However, despite the enhanced capabilities of mobile technologies, the 15 eld of mobile learning is failing to keep pace in terms of pedagogical considerations (Traxler 2007). This 16 is evidenced by the relative paucity of theoretical frameworks that focus on the impact of mobile 17 technologies on learners and their experiences of mobile learning (Kearney et al. 2012). Consequently, 18 most mobile learning initiatives are piecemeal, are poorly supported by the institution, and are not 19 sustained beyond the original project funding or continue once the project leader leaves the institution 20 (Mueller et al. 2012). 21 A signicant challenge facing most educational institutions is identifying strategic and operational 22 priorities for investment in mobile learning capabilities within a rapidly changing eld while maximizing 23 the educational outcomes for students and minimizing institutional costs. Over the past 10 years, a number 24 of pilot or experimental research studies have been conducted across sectors to investigate the impact of 25 mobile technologies on learning and teaching (e.g., Elias 2011; Biggs and Justice 2011; Wong 2012b). 26 One of the most consistent conclusions of these studies is that there are still a number of barriers that 27 inuence the adoption of mobile learning initiatives in education, both at an institutional and at a user 28 level. Higher education institutions are cautious about investing extensively in mobile technologies 29 because of the rate of emergence of new models and the speed with which devices become obsolete. 30 Few higher education institutions have therefore implemented well-nanced and highly visible mobile 31 learning initiatives that are operationalized within policy and practice. 32 A report conducted for the Joint Information Systems Committee (JISC) e-learning program in late 33 2010 indicated that the most prominent issue in the eld of mobile learning is the lack of full-scale 34 evaluations of mobile technology in higher education (Wishart and Green 2010) and the absence of a 35 stable platform from which to effectively research the role, drivers, and impact of mobility on learning 36 (Park 2011). Several attempts to conceptualize mobile learning have been made (e.g., Traxler 2007; JISC 37 InfoNet 2011; Pachman et al. 2011; Vavoula and Sharples 2009), yet none have been sufciently targeted 38 to ensure comprehensive and rigorous coverage of the rapidly developing and changing landscape of 39 contemporary mobile learning networks and technologies. 40 This section explores some of the issues involved with the evaluation of mobile learning initiatives but 41 further looks at the ways in which these challenges are addressed in a variety of learning and institutional *Email: email@example.com Handbook of Mobile Teaching and Learning DOI 10.1007/978-3-642-41981-2_23-1 # Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015 Page 1 of 6
3. 42 contexts. This section begins with the chapter, Moving Towards the Effective Evaluation of Mobile 43 Learning Initiatives in Higher Education Institutions, providing an overview of the mobile learning 44 evaluation frameworks that already exist. The chapter opens with an exploration of current use and 45 pedagogical goals of various mobile learning initiatives. The authors then turn their attention to identi- 46 fying the challenges in evaluating mobile learning initiatives. This sets the scene for their critical 47 consideration of a number of frameworks including the Evaluation of Technologies Framework (Q3 Ng 48 and Nicholas 2013); Critical Analysis (Frohberg et al. 2009), a Framework for Analysing Mobile 49 Learning (Sharples et al. 2007), and Pedagogical Forms for Mobile Learning (Laurillard 2007, based 50 on work in 2002). The chapter concludes with the proposal of a new framework derived from data 51 collected as part of a 3-year funded project in an Australian regional university. 52 Though mobile technologies have been widely adopted by students (e.g., see Murphy and Farley 53 2012), educators are still struggling with when and how these technologies should be used for learning. 54 Melissa Nursey-Bray in her chapter, Moving with Mobiles: Using IT in the Classroom as Against 55 Online: A Comparative Reection from South Australia, explores these issues. This chapter investigates 56 how mobile devices can be used to deliver online content but goes further by exploring how mobile 57 devices can be used to transform face-to-face teaching methods using a South Australian case study. 58 Tairan Kevin Huang, Jin Cui, Corinne Cortese, and Matthew Pepper delve into how emerging mobile 59 technologies can be used for Peer Assisted Learning (PAL) in their chapter, Internet-Based Peer 60 Assisted Learning: Current Models, Future Applications and Potential. The authors posit that emerging 61 technologies can be leveraged to accommodate learning in light of the changing student lifestyle. In this 62 chapter, a number of models for PAL are examined along with the technological requirements of 63 establishment and maintenance of Internet-based PAL programs. 64 In her chapter, Service-Learning Application in an m-Learning Course, Margaret Sass begins by 65 investigating the rationale and pedagogical intent behind mobile learning or m-learning. These ideas are 66 then transferred into the domain of service learning, whereby learning takes place within the context of the 67 community in response to community needs in order to facilitate a powerful learning experience for the 68 student. Social media can be used effectively to this end, providing a quality learning experience using a 69 platform with which students are already comfortable. 70 The next chapter focuses on the evaluation of specic mobile learning initiatives in higher education. 71 The chapter by Aimee Zhang, Student Feedback in Mobile Teaching and Learning, describes a 72 mobile learning project titled Tutors in Pockets. In this project, a mobile application or app was 73 developed for iOS and Android mobile devices. The app was used in undergraduate economics education 74 in an Australian university. The effectiveness of the app use in this context was evaluated using both 75 quantitative and qualitative measures. 76 Emerging technologies bring with them opportunities to leverage the affordances of these technologies 77 for learning. Though it is tempting to recreate old ways of teaching in new ways on these technologies, it is 78 potentially more effective to evolve new ways of learning altogether. One of the ways that many educators 79 are engaging students in new ways is through gamication, leveraging gaming elements to enhance 80 learning. Izabel Rego, in her chapter, Mobile Language Learning: How Gamication Improves the 81 Experience, explores how gamication can be used to promote student learning through enhanced 82 engagement. The focus of her chapter relates to language learning using mobile devices. To this end, 83 she explores the affordances of a number of mobile applications, specically Language Learning Game 84 (LLG), Duolingo, and LingoBee. 85 When e-learning rst became popular in education, many educators simply placed PDFs of hardcopy 86 materials onto a webpage or learning management system. Very little account was taken for optimizing 87 the materials or content for the online environment. Much the same is happening with assessments, where 88 e-learning and paper-based assessment systems are merely transposed to the mobile learning Handbook of Mobile Teaching and Learning DOI 10.1007/978-3-642-41981-2_23-1 # Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015 Page 2 of 6
4. 89 environment. The chapter, Transforming Assessments into the Digital Domain by Rodney J. Clarke, 90 explores how assessments can be optimized for use with mobile devices using genre theory. This 91 exploration makes use of a specic case study from a rst-year information systems subject. 92 One of the difculties with emerging technologies is that they come and go. Just a few years ago, the 93 personal digital assistant or PDAwas hailed as the game-changing device that could revolutionize mobile 94 learning. At the time of the PDAs peak of popularity, tablets were not visible in the device market. Since 95 their release in 2010, iPads have changed all that. Along with their popularity for social networking and 96 entertainment, educators have been nding innovative ways of using iPads for education. In a few select 97 institutions around the world, iPads have been distributed to students and educators on a large scale. The 98 chapter from Lynnae Rankine-Venaruzzo and Dennis Macnamara, iPads as Institutional Game 99 Changers, explores how such an implementation can be achieved with optimal results. The chapter 100 explores a number of avenues of approach such as staff capacity building in designing interactive mobile- 101 enabled learning activities and assessment tasks and showcasing good practice among others. 102 References 103 Biggs, B., and R. Justice. 2011. M-learning: The next evolution. Chief Learning Ofcer 10(4): 3841. 104 Elias, T. 2011. Universal instructional design principles for M-learning. International Review of Research 105 in Open and Distance Learning 12(2): 143156. 106 Evans-Cowley, J. 2010. Planning in the real-time city: The future of mobile technology. Journal of 107 Planning Literature 25(2): 136149. 108 JISC InfoNet. 2011. Mobile learning infokit. Retrieved from https://mobilelearninginfokit.pbworks.com/ 109 w/page/41122430/Home 110 Kearney, M., S. Schuck, K. Burden, and P. Aubusson. 2012. Viewing mobile learning from a pedagogical 111 perspective. Research in Learning Technology 20. Retrieved from http://www. 112 researchinlearningtechnology.net/index.php/rlt/article/view/14406/html 113 Mueller, J., E. Wood, D. De Pasquale, and R. Cruikshank. 2012. Examining mobile technology in higher 114 education: Handheld devices in and out of the classroom. International Journal of Higher Education 115 1(2): 4354. 116 Murphy, Angela, and Helen Farley. 2012. Development of a framework for evaluating the impact and 117 sustainability of mobile learning initiatives in higher education. In ASCILITE 2012: 29th annual 118 conference of the Australasian Society for Computers in Learning in Tertiary Education: Future 119 challenges, sustainable futures, Sydney, 2528 Nov. 120 Pachman, M., A. Logunov, and S. Quinton. 2011. TELT evaluation framework Renement of TELT 121 survey instrument (2nd iteration). Sydney: University of New South Wales. 122 Park, Y. 2011. A pedagogical framework for M-learning: Categorizing educational applications of mobile 123 technologies into four types. International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning 12(2): 124 78102. 125 Traxler, J. 2007. Dening, discussing and evaluating mobile education: The moving nger writes and 126 having writ. . . International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning 8(2). Retrieved from 127 http://www.irrodl.org/index.php/irrodl/article/view/346 128 Vavoula, G., and M. Sharples. 2009. Meeting the challenges in evaluating mobile learning: A 3-level 129 evaluation framework. International Journal of Mobile and Blended Learning 1(2): 5475. 130 Wishart, J., and D. Green. 2010. Identifying emerging issues in mobile learning in higher and further 131 education: A report to JISC. University of Bristol. Handbook of Mobile Teaching and Learning DOI 10.1007/978-3-642-41981-2_23-1 # Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015 Page 3 of 6
5. 132 Wong, L.H. 2012a. A learner-centric view of mobile seamless learning. British Journal of Educational 133 Technology 43: 1923. 134 Wong, W. 2012b. Tools of the trade: How mobile learning devices are changing the face of higher 135 education. Community College Journal 82(5): 5461. Handbook of Mobile Teaching and Learning DOI 10.1007/978-3-642-41981-2_23-1 # Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015 Page 4 of 6
6. Index Terms: Joint Information Systems Committee (JISC) e-Learning program 1 Mobile learning initiatives, higher education 2 Online content, mobile devices 2 Peer Assisted Learning (PAL) 2 Personal Digital Assistant (PDA) 3 Social media 2 Handbook of Mobile Teaching and Learning DOI 10.1007/978-3-642-41981-2_23-1 # Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015 Page 5 of 6...