1. Listening Comprehension Listening comprehension is an active process of constructing meaning and this is done by applying knowledge to the incoming sound. (Gary Buck, 2001)
2. Listening comprehension can be defined as the ability to recall and understand information which is presented orally. This information might be presented through a book, filmstrip, video, or felt board set
3. Listening comprehension is the receptive skill in the oral mode. When we speak of listening what we really mean is listening and understanding what we hear. In our first language, we have all the skills and background knowledge we need to understand what we hear, so we probably aren't even aware of how complex a process it is. Here we will briefly describe some of what is involved in learning to understand what we hear in a second language.
4. Factors affecting listening comprehension A child with hearing defect will not benefit of listening. For instance, we need a reasonably high measure of measure of cognitive ability to be able to cope with the cognitive demands of language Language using the alphabetic code like English has very similar sound units. For instance /p/ and /b/, /k/ and /g/ and /d/ differ only very slightly in sound and are more similar then different. People who suffered from this condition are known as auditory discrimination problem where they have difficulty differentiating these similar sound
5. Listening comprehension problems Listening comprehension problems may cause a child unable to 1. Follow verbal actions 2. Understand aspects concepts related to time and space 3. Understanding jokes and figurative language 4. Understanding words with multiple meanings 5. Understanding compound and complex sentences 6. Understanding discourse
6. ASSESSING LISTENING COMPREHENSION Some listening comprehension tests are fairly easy to carry out. As a teacher, you can carry out some tests to determine students listening problem so that you can plan your teaching objectives and strategies.
7. INFORMAL TESTS OF LISTENING COMPREHENSION Nouns Adjectives Verbs Prepositions Tenses Understanding Directions and Instructions Understanding Discourse
8. Nouns To determine if a student knows the meaning of the word used to label things, the better is when the teacher says a word, and have the student to point to the picture of the object. For example, to show understanding of the student with fruits names, the teacher could say apple and ask the student to point to one of three pictures shown (banana, pear, apple) With the same procedure, the student can test another student with the word knowledge such as the names of vehicles and objects in class. Also, the student can point to the object named by the other student.
9. Adjectives The teacher can show a picture of two similar objects with different characteristics and ask the student to point to the object with the named characteristic. For instance, to find out whether the student has understood the word tall, the teacher can show a picture of two boys with different heights. The teacher then says Point to the tall boy and the student will indicate his comprehension by pointing to the correct picture.
10. Verbs To test a students comprehension of action words, the teacher can ask the student to either perform the action named, or to point to a picture showing the action. As an example, the teacher can say Jump and ask the student to show the jumping action.
11. Prepositions To test the students understanding of words used to indicate position, the teacher can show pictures of similar objects in different positions. For instance, the teacher shows three pictures of a ball with different positions; under, beside and between two tables. The teacher then says Show me The ball is under the table and the student indicates his understanding by pointing to the correct picture.
12. Tenses Test whether the student understands present, completed and future action by the usage of pictures. For example, the teacher can show three pictures, one of a person walking, one of a person eating, one of a person sleeping. The teacher then says Show me The girl is sleeping and the student has to point to the appropriate picture.
13. Understanding Directions and Instructions To test whether a student can understand instructions given by the teacher, the teacher merely gives the instructions for performing a task and ask the students to carry out the instructions. As an example, the teacher can say Rub your tummy and the student does as he instructed.
14. Understanding Discourse To test whether the student can understand connected text, the teacher can read from a text and then ask questions based on the text.
15. Teaching Listening Comprehension in Different Communicational Context
16. Create numerous situations that will allow students to use English. Creative and practical drills to help the students acquire related language items enable students to use appropriate language in relevant situations. Teacher can source for ideas from any book any modify them to suit students needs.
17. Techniques For Teaching Listening Comprehension
18. UNDERSTANDING WORDS AND CONCEPT
19. Give student a reason to listen to what you have to say by developing mutual interests and discussing them together Encourage student to describe his thoughts. Keep the focus on actively listening to what he is saying. Show through your example what good, thoughtful listening looks like by being attentive, asking good follow-up questions, and interacting with what your student has to say. Paraphrase them in specific terms--illustrate them with concrete examples, hands-on models, or visual tools.
20. EXAMPLE: Car = Kereta
21. UNDERSTANDING SENTENCES
22. In the classroom, students listen in order to repeat and to understand. In listening to repeat, students imitate and memorize linguistic items such as words, idioms, and sentence patterns. Read a rhythms row by row, boy group, girl group.
23. Worksheet Jack be Nimble Jack, be nimble, Jack, be _____, Jack, _____ over The candlestick. Jack jumped ____ Jack jumped ____ Jack jumped over and burned his ____. jump quick high low toe
24. Listening Comprehension Listening comprehension can be defined the ability to recall and understand information which is presented orally. In another words is listening and understanding what we hear.
25. Strategies for Teaching Students with a Listening Comprehension Deficit Preferential seating Reduce distractions Clear simple directions Visual aids Increase student response time
26. Strategies for Teaching Students with a Listening Comprehension Deficit The student should sit close to and face the speaker. Preferential seating Distractions mean something that will be attract the attention of the students. Reduce distractions Teacher should speak slowly and with a minimum amount of words. Clear simple directions
27. Teacher should be use many type of teaching aids. For example videos, pictures and graphic organizers. Visual aids Allow the student to have extended time to answer the questions. Increased student response time
28. Understanding Words and Concepts
29. Names of Objects As far as possible, use actual objects to teach names Verb Meanings If possible, perform the action.
30. Pictures Make use of pictures Concepts of Attributes Use contrasting attributes, such as rough-smooth, pretty-ugly.
31. Development of Concepts Teach concepts beyond the object itself. For example, when teaching chair, help students to understand that there could be many types of chair. Classes of Objects Teacher should think of ways to teach superordinates or category words like vehicles and fruits.
32. 1. Directions Teacher should give simple directions in sentences for students understanding 2. Finding the picture Teacher can line up several pictures, provide a sentence and ask the students to point to the correct picture. 3. Function words Example of words: a, on, behind These words should be taught in context of a situation Understanding Sentences
33. 4. Following directions Read a set of directions on making something. Ask the student to follow the directions step by step. 5. Sequence of events Provide a series of sequenced pictures that tell a story. Ask the student to arrange the pictures according to the story 6. Listening for detail Read a story to student and ask detailed questions about the story. Prepare true-false questions and the 5W1H questions. Listening Comprehension
34. Critical Listening 1. Recognizing absurdities Tell a short story using a word or phrase that doesnt fit the story. Ask the student to identify any funny or weird thing about the story. Example: I couldnt lift the toy car because its too heavy 2. Listening to advertisements Ask the student to listen to advertisements and determine how the advertiser attracts the people. 3. Correct me Make some errors when telling a story. Let the student listen and correct the mistakes
35. Understanding Stories Read The teacher should: a) Involve all children in the story by asking appropriate questions b) Make use of predictable books c) Use well-illustrated books d) Reread favourite stories e) Provide follow-up activities
36. REFERENCE SAlan Parrish. (2003). Learning Disabilities Themes And Perspectives. British : Elsevier Ltd. Bernice Wong. ( 2004 ). Learning about Learning Disabilities. London : Elsevier. Inc. Etta K. Brown. (2008). Learning Disabilities. United States Of America : Langdon Street Press Gary Buck. (2001). Assessing Listening. United Kingdom : Cambridge University Press. How To Overcome Language Problems. Retrieved on11 January 2013 from http://www.audiblox2000.com/language- problems.htm H. Douglas Brown, (2001). Teaching by Principles An Interactive Approach to Language Pedagogy, 2nd Edition. USA: Addison Wesley Longman.
37. Kevin Johnston. Listening Strategies and Comprehension Activities. Retrieved on 10 January 2013 from http://www.ehow.com/info_12077209_listening-strategies comprehension- activities.html Mandi Titus. Listening Comprehension Activities for Kids. Retrieved on 10 January 2013 from http://www.ehow.com/list_6966069_listeningcomprehension-activities- kids.html Nesamalar Chitravelu et. al. (2005). ELT Methodology; Principles and Practice, 2nd Edition. Selangor: Penerbit Fajar Bakti Sdn. Bhd. Paul, Richard, Linda Elder. (2007). A Miniature Guide for Those Who Teach on How to Improve Student Learning.
38. Retrieved on 10 January 2013 from http://coedpages.uncc.edu/lujordan/Listening Comprehension Handout.htm Retrieved on 10 January 2013 from http://ucanr.edu/sites/ReadytoSucceed/TypesofBooks/ Retrieved on 10 January 2013 from http://grammar.about.com/od/rs/g/readingterm.htm Tasos Vossos. Kindergarten Listening Comprehension Activities. Retrieved on 10 January 2013 from http://www.ehow.com/info_7886773_kindergarten- listening-comprehension-activities.html