This workshop was presented at an elementary in TN and deals with strategies regular education teachers may use in the classroom to work with ELL and Special Education students.
- 1. Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg HhEnglish Language Learners in the Classroom: Strategies That Make a Difference Keith Pruitt, Ed.S. Words of Wisdom Educational Consulting www.woweducationalconsulting.com www.myspace.com/wowedu
2. Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg HhAgenda Discussion of six strategies within the framework of: Increasing Comprehensible Input Increasing Interaction Promoting Thinking Skills Interdependence Theory Schema Theory 3. Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh
- Total Physical Response (Asher)
- Interactive Learning (Slavin, Gardner, Hoyt)
- Preview, View, Review (Freeman)
- Using Visualization and Schema (Beck, McKeown, Kucan, Marzano, Piaget)
- Alternative Texts (Clay, Fountas, Pinnell, Booth, Opitz, Ford, Zbaracki)
- Transference (Cummins, Freeman)
4. Are some of your students still trying to figure out how to get over the fence while the rest are surging ahead? 5. What is Comprehensible Input? 6. What is the level of Understanding Here?
- A related observation about theFdistribution is that it is positively skewed,notsymmetric as arezandt .This is becauseFis always positive:It is the ratio of variances, both of which are positive, soFitself must be positive.There is no left-hand tail ofFbecause theFdistribution ends abruptly at 0.
- Russell T. Hurlburt (2003).Comprehending Behavioral Statistics .Thomson: Australia, p. 336.
7. fi yuo cna raed tihs, yuo hvae a sgtrane mnid tooCna yuo raed tihs? Olny 55 plepoe out of 100 can.i cdnuolt blveiee taht I cluod aulaclty uesdnatnrd waht I was rdanieg. The phaonmneal pweor of the hmuan mnid, aoccdrnig to a rscheearch at Cmabrigde Uinervtisy, it dseno't mtaetr in waht oerdr the ltteres in a wrod are, the olny iproamtnt tihng is taht the frsit and lsat ltteer be in the rghit pclae. The rset can be a taotl mses and you can sitll raed it whotuit a pboerlm.. Tihs is bcuseae the huamn mnid deos not raed ervey lteter by istlef, but the wrod as a wlohe. Azanmig huh? yaeh and I awlyas tghuhot slpeling was ipmorantt! Can You Read This? 8. The Greater the Comprehensible Input the greater the capacity to comprehend. 9. So which is more desirable? The student who reads every word? Or The student who understands the meaning? 10.
- What is Involved In Comprehension?
- What Does it Mean to Understand?
- Making Sense of text based on authors intention and message.
- Understanding how the words interplay to relay a message.
- To exercise intellectual muscle
- To connect with a text in a meaningful way
Jamikas Story 11. Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh
- Create Sensory and Emotional Images
- Keene and Zimmerman,Mosaic of Thought , 1997
12. The Road On The Left By Keith Pruitt On my Tuesday drive through the country side, I happened on a road I had not previously seen.It was on my left just past Conners store.Even though I had been here many times, I had never noticed this road before and it seemed seldom driven as grass was grown waist high on the edges.The treads of tires previously venturing down the lane were the only signs the path had been driven.I can see that in my mind.I can just see me driving down this dirt road and there is grass in the middle hitting on my car and the dust is flying and the weeds on the side of the road are up to my window.Can you stand in your space and show your conversation partner how high you think the grass would be?Remember, it is up to the window of my car. Turning down the road the grass between the tire ruts seemed short for a distance but soon became taller hitting the grill on my car.It was obvious I had turned down a road where few had driven in recent days.Over in the field was a house that appeared to be vacant.If the house isvacantit means that no one is living there.A smile crossed my face as memories from the past came rushing through my mind.I think that this person has been to this house before.I know this because the author saysmemories came rushing through my mind .A memory is based on something that has happened before to a person.How would a person smile when they remember something they like.What do you think the author means when he saysmemories came rushing through my mind ?Turn and Talk. 13. My mother had moved here as a child of five years old from their old house in Chicago.She loved living here in the country.She use to tell me of swinging on an old tire hung by a rope from a tree.Well, I wonder if that is the tree over yonder.Look the old rope is still there, I called to the air. When I was but five years old, I remember coming to visit grandmother.She would be sitting on the porch in her rocker just knitting and singing.Ill fly away, oh glory, Ill fly away, I mumbled the words still remembering the old hymn she loved so much.My face lit up with the warmth of these remembrances.Fifty years had gone by, but it was as though it were yesterday.Have you ever moved far away from your house?What do you think it would look like if you went back? The house looked to be in fairly good shape.It needed a coat of paint and a few boards had come loose.Otherwise, it had survived the years rather well.Mr. Corbin told me the last people to live at Shiloh Valley were the Hendricks.They had both been dead now only a couple of years.I guess they did right well by the place.It looked better than I had supposed. I opened the door and grabbed my box of supplies and began up the steps.The movers would be here in a week.There was a lot to be done in such a short time.I had come home. What do you think the person is going to do with the house? 14. Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh
- Model a comprehension strategy for children.
- Have students practice the strategy with you.
- Allow students to practice the strategy with each other.
15. Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg HhStrategies Used: TPR Cooperative Learning Visualization Alternative Text 16. Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg HhPreview View Review David and Yvonne Freeman,Closing the Achievement Gapand others. 17. Preview Using Story Mapping Build schema with Visual Anchor Visual Transference 18. Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh 19.
- Preview, View, Review can be used with story mapping.
- Should be used when introducing new science and social studies text.
- Can be used to introduce new vocabulary.
- Can pre-teach using ELL/ Spec Ed teacher.
Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh 20. ConnectedComprehension Instruction The Keys to Comprehension Instruction is getting students to THINK! Literacy by Design, Rigby, Linda Hoyt, 2008 21. 1. Read, Cover, Remember, Retell 2. Say Something3. Partner Jigsaw 4. Two-Word 5. Reverse Think-Aloud Interactive Reading Techniques The Power of Peer Learning Literacy by Design, Rigby, Linda Hoyt, 2008 22. Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg HhVisualization And Creating Schema 23. How Is Schema Created?
- What Comes to Your Mind When You Think of
- How about when I spell this word?
24. The Work of J R Anderson Sensory Memory Working Memory Discards OR Permanent Memory Files Anderson, J.R. (1995).Learning and memory: An integrated approach.New York: John Wiley & Sons How Does The Brain Work? 25.
- Learn new vocabulary by creating schema that connects with what is already known. (Beck, McKeown, Kucan and Marzano)
What words come to your mind as you look at this picture?Turn and Talk 26. How About Now? What Schema Do You Have For This Picture? Can you transfer your learning? Can you adopt new schemes for this if I give you information? 27. Beck, McKeown, Kucan
- Vocabulary must first be orally introduced.
- Vocabulary is not grade specific.
- Words must be explained, not defined.
- Multiple usages in a meaningful context (8-10).
- Create Schema (visual representation)
- Students reflect with each other
- Three Tiers of Vocabulary
28. Working With Vocabulary
- Robert Marzano,Building Background Knowledge
29. Comforting - Something or someone that is comforting makes you feel good when you are sad or hurt. Beck & McKeown, Elements of Reading Vocabulary, Steck Vaughn, 2004 Further explain by putting the word in a context. A warm cup of tea is comforting when my throat hurts. My dog feels comforting when I am hurt. 30. Using Vocabulary Journals
- Have students create journals
31. 32. By creating the visual representation, they are making the learning concrete by making permanent memory files. Why is this important? 33. Hooking The Learning
- Have you ever met someone and then five minutes lateryou couldnt remember their name?