EFL collaborative learning in the virtual environment in the light of sociocultural theory principles

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  • 1. I ENCONTRO NACIONAL DE ENSINO-APRENDIZAGEM DE LNGUAS E A TEORIA SCIO-HISTRICO-CULTURAL E DA ATIVIDADE: O RESGATE DO DILOGOEFL collaborative learning in the virtualenvironment in the light of socioculturaltheory principlesIsis da Costa Pinho (UNISINOS/UFRGS)Marlia dos Santos Lima (UNISINOS)

2. MotivationTo foster aTo integrate digital toolscollaborative potentials to his perspective in the use educational goals,of technology as a tooladjusting his plan to his for language learning students profile in the production ofcontentThe foreignlanguage newteacher needs To promote both To create opportunitiescommunication skills andto develop an authoring,creative and critical use digital fluency in the use of language throughof digital tools for a FL technology in tasks thatmultimedia expression challenge learners toexpand their knowledge 3. Objective This is a qualitative case study that aims toinvestigate the production of collaborative EFLtasks (SWAIN, 2000) in a virtual environment,focusing on the mediation of collaborativeinteraction and technology in the learning process. 4. Theoretical Framework Computing inEducationResearchSecond and ForeignLanguage AcquisitionResearchVygotskys SocioculturalTheory and Complex SystemsTheory 5. Principles of Vygotskys SocioculturalTheory FL teaching and learning processes arefostered by tasks centered in theexploration, interaction and production oflanguage, where collaboration andnegotiation of meaning and form supportcomputer-mediatedcommunication(VYGOTSKY, 1978, 2003; LANTOLF,2000; 2000; 2006, SWAIN, 1985; 2010;OHTA, 2000) . 6. Foreign Language Learning CollaborativeinteractionZone of ProximalDevelopment Negotiation and AssistanceNoticing,knowledge testing and error correction 7. Complex Systems Theory of Larsen-Freeman and Cameron (2008) The interaction with the other involves themobilization, interpretation and coordination ofcontributions in a constant transformation oflearners and their knowledge in the constructionof a collective perspective of the task. 8. SL/FL Acquisition Research Collaborative dialogue is an interaction supportestablished between learners during languageproduction, in which language functions as asociocognitive tool and a product of learning. Inthis interaction meanings are coconstructed,appropriated by the learners and reused infuture tasks (SWAIN,1995, 2000). 9. Computing in Education Research Technology has a great potential for FL learning, since it is a rich multimedia and diversified resource of language input, as well as a space nurtured by the interaction between users in the production and sharing of knowledge. 10. Methodology The participants in this study were 6undergraduate English students at a privateuniversity in southern Brazil. The data generation took place during a three-class production in the computer lab where theidea was to promote FL learning throughlanguage and technology use in collaborativetasks. 11. Methodology The data analysis focused on the oral tasks thatwere at the core objective of each class. Inthese tasks students had to watch Youtube shortvideos and discuss them through Skype basedon key questions. 12. MethodologyOral TaskWatch the video Strangers and discuss thefollowing questions on Skype:- What is interesting about the video?- What cultural groups can you identify?After the discussion, you are going to narrate thestory portrayed in the movie to someone whohasnt seen it. 13. Methodology After the chat, the 3 dyads were asked to listento their recordings and to discuss over Skype(via chat) their production, the task, and theirlearning. Also, at the end of the classes, studentsanswered a questionnaire that sought toinvestigate their perceptions on the positive andnegative aspects of the tasks, their learning, andpossible modifications. 14. Methodology Data analysis focused on the mediation ofcollaborative interaction and technology in theFL learning process. 15. MethodologyThe analysis sought to address the following questions: Is the nature of interaction established in the taskscollaborative? Are there occasions of language assistance between learnersduring the tasks? Are there evidences of noticing, knowledge testing and errorcorrection? What are the learners perceptions on the tasks, their learningand the use of technology? 16. Oral taskClass 1: Task 2.Group Vicky and CristineVicky: Since many time ago. so:, we can see a Muslin, a Jewish, and a:: a big group of skinheads in this video. What happened Cristine?Cristine: :: the first guy was reading a newspaper, :::=Vicky: = Is a Muslinguy?Cristine: Yeah. And :: the other man was jus- Just seat in the train, andlook other guy. Yes? 17. Oral taskClass 1: Task 2.Group Vicky and CristineVicky::: (2.0) [(xx)]Cristine: [ and] his phone started ringing,Vicky:Yeah. When- when he think he would escape of that situation, from that situation,=Cristine:= his phone started ringing,=Vicky:= with a: with a ty[pical]Cristine: [pica::l] song a typicalsong?Vicky:Jewish song. [Yeah?]Cristine:[Yeah.]Vicky:>that we dont know the name.< :: in-=Cristine: = and the skinheads start to face him, 18. Oral taskClass 1: Task 2.Group Mathias and NiltonMathias: What do you think about? I think this summarizes. Isnt it?Nilton: Yes.Mathias: Can you add something? Something else?Nilton: Well. I dont know. Well you gonna see that they only realize the boy was ajew because of the cell phone. Because he:: he hid the necklace he had.Mathias: And also:: :: if you analyze deeper the film, its about pressure as well. itsabout culture pressure. And its about racism.Nilton: Yeah.Mathias: :: and how groups had meet : have to live in the same area but dontget on. Basically its about intolerance. 19. Oral taskClass 1: Task 2.Group Mathias and NiltonMathias: cultural groups? What cultural groups can you identify? We can identify white, groups, okay?Nilton: Whats this?Mathias: Right-wing is someone who is :: we have left-wing and right-wing. Basically osesquerdistas e os::direitistas xx okay? So they are from the ,a::nd they could be even like fro::m :: national party for some countries, in England theyhave P.N.P. Peoples National Party, national front. Which is very very heavy. In France, Idont know, but a:: I believe- I think that definitely they are pro :: pro I think- verynazi. Well, they still- : they graffiti all the swastika there so. And then the other group is:::: , >maybe muslins< and :: jewish. really. You know? Jewish andMuslin. Because they-= 20. Oral taskClass 1: Task 2Group Francisca and AnglicaFrancisca: Allright. So the jewish and the muslin are in the train, and then fourskinheads show up and then the jewish tried to hide the star that he has in hisnecklace,Anglica: Yes.Francisca: :: and then they start- the skinheads start disturbing the [two of them.]Anglica: [ye::::s] he:>I dont know how to say-< I dont know the name of this sign. I know its a nazisign, but I dont know whats the name.Francisca:Nazi cross::. 21. Oral taskClass 1: Task 2.Group Francisca and AnglicaFrancisca: Ah okay. Allright so::>lets see.< Whats interesting about the video in your opinion?Anglica: right? That they need to join first to: escape from the nazi ((pronounces neizi))Francisca: Nazi. ((pronounces natzi))Anglica:Nazi = ((repeats the correct pronunciation))Francisca: =Its weird, right? yes. YES I think thats the most interesting because even that they aredifferent, because one is Muslin and the other is a Jewish, they had to get together to escape from the:skinheads, right?=Anglica:= and they are STRANGERS, right? They didnt know each other. Its nice.Francisca: Its very interesting.Anglica:What else? 22. Learners perception on the task Participants pointed out that the task had clearinstructions to guide their work, as well as aninteresting combination of videos and oraldiscussion. 23. Learners perception on the task The tasks promoted English practice since thestudents could observe how they were talkingand learned from their mistakes and collectivecorrection and work. Learning happened, theysaid, through a more fun and interestinginteraction since they felt they were sharing. 24. Learners perception on the task Moreover, they said that committed many errorsin the oral task, since unlike the writing task,there was no time for speech rehearsal andedition. However, they could learn to think abouthow to fix those errors in the chat or for futuretasks. 25. Learners perception on technology Interesting to note that the students at the end ofthe classes felt they had learned not only theforeign language itself, and how to collaboratewith colleagues, but, mainly, that learning a FLthrough technology is possible, fun, and can bedone in their future practice as English teachers. 26. Learners perception on technology According to the students, the exploration anduse of digital tools and different Web content toperform creative and interesting tasks motivatedthem to learn, and inspired them to make apedagogical use of technology. 27. Conclusion The results suggest that there was collaborationbased on evidences of participation requests,acceptance and appropriation of contributionsleading to EFL coconstruction. 28. Conclusion Furthermore, the challenging task of discussinga video on Skype led to mutual assistancebetween the students to maintain the focus oftheir production and improve it. By seeking to express meaning in the FL, thelearners focused on the form, noticing gaps intheir production, and correcting each other. 29. Conclusion The perceptions of the participants suggest thatthe tasks enabled them to work on theirlinguistic difficulties, to see the benefits ofcollaboration for their learning, and to thinkabout new possibilites technology can give totheir future work as teachers. 30. ReferencesLANTOLF, J. P. (Ed.) Sociocultural Theory and Second Language Learning. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000.LANTOLF, J. P. Sociocultural Theory and L2: State of the Art. SSLA, v. 28, pp. 67-109, 2006.LARSEN-FREEMAN, Diane; CAMERON, Lynne. Complex Systems and Applied Linguistics. Oxford: OxfordUniversity Press, 2008. 287p.OHTA, A. S. Rethinking interaction in SLA: Developmentally apropriate assistance in the zone of proximaldevelopment and the acquisition of L2 grammar. In: LANTOLF, J. Sociocultural Theory and Second LanguageLearning. Oxford: OUP, 2000.SWAIN, M. Three Functions of Output in Second Language Learning. In: COOK,G.; SEIDLHOFER, B. (Ed.)Principle and Practice in Applied Linguistics: Studies in honor of H. G. Widdowson, Oxford: Oxford UniversityPress, p.125-144, 1995.SWAIN, M. The Output Hypothesis and Beyond: Mediating Acquisition Through Collaborative Dialogue. In: J.P.LANTOLF, Sociocultural Theory and Second Language Learning. Oxford: Oxford University Press p. 97-114,2000.SWAIN, M. Integrating Language and Content Teaching Through Collaborative Tasks. The Canadian ModernLanguage Review, v.58, n.1, pp.44-63, set. 2001.VYGOTSKY, L. S. Mind in Society: the Development of Higher Psychological Processes. Cambridge, MA.: HarvardUniversity Press, 1978.VYGOTSKY, L. S. Thought and Language. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1986.VYGOTSKY, L. S. The Collected Works of L. S. Vygotsky. V.1. Thinking and Speaking. New York, N.Y.: PlenumPress, 1987.VYGOTSKY, L. O Instrumento e o smbolo no desenvolvimento da criana. In: A formao Social da Mente: Odesenvolvimento dos processos psicolgicos superiores. So Paulo: Martins Fontes, 1998, pp.25-40.VYGOTSKY, L. S. O desenvolvimento da percepo e da ateno. In: Vygotsky, L. S. A formao social damente.So Paulo: Martins Fontes, 2003, pp.41-49. 31. Transcriptions convention adapted from Schnack, Pisoni andOstermann (2005)[texto] Falas sobrepostas Fala mais lenta = Fala colada texto Fala com volume mais baixo . Entonao descendente TEXTO Fala com volume mais alto do que no contexto anterior e posterior ? Entonao ascendente texto Slaba, palavra ou som acentuado - Interrupo abrupta na fala : Alongamento de som Setas Aumento ou diminuio da entonao @@@ Pulsos de risada >texto< Fala mais rpida ((texto)) Comentrios do(a) transcritor(a) XXX Palavras que no foram possveis de transcrever (texto) Dvidas na transcrio (3.0) Pausa , Entonao contnua