A presentation covering Firefighter LODDs that occur inside structures and the lessons to be learned.
- 1. What we need to know What we need to change..
2. Capt. Zach Hickman Iowa City Fire Department 3. What we need to know What we need to change.. 4. A detailed look at death and injury rates Case Studies Changes in gear NIOSH findings Putting it all together with a brief Strategy and Tactics Review 5. Three groups Inside Outside Cardiac RelatedInside deaths Rapid Fire Growth Collapse Ran out of AIR 6. What does this mean to us. Late 1970s 1.8 deaths /1000 structure fires, occurred inside Late 1990s 3.0 deaths /1000 structure fires, occurred inside 2000 through 2009, 138 firefighters died while operating inside at structure fires 2010 through 2013, 55 firefighter died while operating inside at structure fire 7. Breaking down the 138 deaths from 2000-2009 78 asphyxiation, 25 burns, 20 sudden cardiac event, 15 crushing or trauma. Of the 78 that died of asphyxiation 27 died in structural collapse 24 died in rapid fire progression 18 died getting lost and running out of air 5 died when they fell through holes burned in the floor 4 others died through misc. reasons 8. Colerain Township, Ohio 160 career firefighters 5 Stations EMS Transport service 8,700 calls for service in 2007 9. Captain Robin M. Broxterman April 16, 1970 April 4, 2008Firefighter Brian W. Schira October 15, 1978 April 4, 2008 10. Friday, April 4th, 2008 0611 hrs received 911 call 0612 hrs FD was dispatched 0613 hrs Homeowner reported the fire was in the basement 0623 hrs first unit arrived on scene Capt. Broxterman has face-to-face with homeowner 11. Area of Fire OriginSide Alpha 12. Approximate area of floor system collapse. 13. Basement LevelLocation of Both Deceased FirefightersSide Alpha 14. January 19, 2011 NIOSH 2011-02 15. Lutherville Volunteer Fire Company Baltimore County Fire Department This combination department consists of 1,050 career members and approximately 2,000 volunteers. 16. 1855 hrs 17. Incident Management SystemPersonnel Accountability SystemRapid Intervention CrewsConducting a search without a means of egress protected by a hoselineTactical consideration for coordinating advancing hoselines from opposite directions Building safety features, e.g., no sprinkler systems, modifications limiting automatic door closingOccupant behavior-leaving sliding glass door openIneffective ventilation. 18. Cincinnati, OH Around 800 members 26 Stations / 26 Engine Companies 19. Firefighter Oscar Armstrong III 20. Homewood, IL 17 full time, 15 part-time firefighters Serves 20,000 residences 2500 calls for service in 2011 21. Firefighter Brian Carey 22. 12 Stations 237 Uniform Members 83,000 Residents 15,000 Call a year 11 Engines 4 Trucks 1 Rescue 1 Tender NIOSH #2011-18 23. Hard time getting water on the fire > 48 minutes Lots of radio transmissions. Multiple Stairwells and FDC Mayday called 52 minutes into call. Fireground personnel instructed to change radio channel 24. 5th Floor 25. Ensure that the existing standard operating procedures for high-rise firefighting operations are reviewed, implemented, and enforced. Ensure that a deployment strategy for low-frequency/high-risk incidents is developed and implemented. Ensure that the incident commander develops an incident action plan, which is communicated to all fire fighters on scene, and includes effective strategy and tactics for high-rise operations, a timely coordinated fire attack, and a coordinated search plan. Ensure that the incident commander utilizes division/group supervisors. 26. Ensure that fire fighters are properly trained in air management and SCBA emergency operations. Ensure that the incident commander is provided a chief's aide. Ensure that the incident commander establishes a stationary command post. Ensure that fire fighters are properly trained in Mayday standard operating procedures and survival techniques. 27. - NIOSH Top 5 LODD Causes 1. Improper Risk Assessment / Poor size-up 2. Lack of Command 3. Lack of accountability 4. Inadequate communications 5. Lack of SOP / failure to follow SOPs 28. Bunker Gear (NFPA 1971) Thermal protection Requirements for overlapping coverage 29. SCBA (NFPA 1981) Greater capacity Better components Universal Connections Heads-Up display @ 50% Integrated PASS Device 30. New changes to 1981 for 2013 include changing the EOSTI (End of Service Time Indicator) Change the EOSTI from 25% to 33% 31. NIOSH NFPA40 lit/min 30 minute (1200L) bottle = 31.8 minutes of work 100 lit/min 30 minute (1200L) bottle = 12.8 minutes of workTotal VolumeWork PeriodWork Time Exit ReserveExit Time45 min. bottle1800 L1350 L13.5 min.450 L4.5 min.30 min bottle1200L900L9 min300L3 min 32. NFPA 100L/MINNEWTotal VolumeWork PeriodWork Time Exit ReserveExit Time45 min. bottle1800 L1200 L12 min.600 L6 min.30 min bottle1200L800L8 min400L4 min 33. Changes in Gear In 1980 lenses were tested and found to fail above 300F NIST data shows the mask is the first component to fail. Melting at temps above 900F and seeing degradation above 600F Rollover along the ceiling can be seen between 900F and 1300F 34. Changes in Gear 2013 edition of NFPA 1981 changes the recommendations for face pieces. 600F is improved to 950F 900F is improved to 1800F Rollover / Flashover occurs between 900F and 1300F 35. Impact of Horizontal Ventilation on Fire Behavior Modern furniture New fire growth curve Tenability Forcing the door Proper vent locations Coordination of fire attack Pushing Fire 36. What does this mean.. Strategy is the overall goal Tactics are the objectives to reach that goalDont forget about the Tasks Functions preformed to reach the objectives 37. Lacking sufficient manpower, rescue takes precedence. Remove those in greatest danger first! With insufficient manpower to perform needed tasks, perform those that protect the most first. When sufficient manpower is available coordinate both rescue and fire attack. If there are no threats to occupants or no occupants, Firefighters should not be unduly endangered 38. Whats our goal? What are the current fire conditions?What is the expected outcome? How are we going to get our information? 39. How are we going to get it done?Which line do we pull?Are we going to knock it down form the outside with a Transitional Attack?When should ventilation be started, and by who?Who is responsible for the Search vs. Fire Attack 40. Know the limits of your gear Manage your reserve air Keep crew integrity Dont delay a Call for Assistance Choose the right equipment Coordinate Ventilation efforts Complete the 360 Make sure your efforts are consistent with the game plan. 41. ZACH-HICKMAN@IOWA-CITY.ORG www.slideshare.net Title - Dying Inside Author - ZHICKMAN User - zhickman 42. NIOSH Report #F2010-10 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2nt0DT0 nXq8 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JKYW6u K4vDI http://www.firerescue1.com/fireproducts/training-products/articles/1283235High-tech-video-explains-firefighter-death/ 43. http://www.usfa.fema.gov/fireservice/fatalities/statistics/history.shtm http://www.nfpa.org/assets/files/PDF/fffstructure.pdf http://www.iaff.org/hs/LODD_Manual/LODD%20Reports/Colerain% 20Township,%20OH%20%20Preliminary%20Broxterman%20and%20Schira.pdf http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/fire/pdfs/face200312.pdf http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/fire/pdfs/face201010.pdf http://statter911.com/2010/03/31/illinois-firefighter-dead-anothercritical-elderly-resident-dead-in-house-fire-in-homewood/http://www.ul.com/global/eng/pages/offerings/industries/buildingm aterials/fire/fireservice/ventilation/