Diagrammatic elicitation & When to use diagrams, drawings and cartoons?

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This presentation was given by Tunde Varga-Atkins at the 2011 International Visual Methods conference at the Open University, UK, Milton Keynes (Sep13-15 2011). It is a collaboration between Muriah Umoquit, Peggy Tso, Tunde and Mark O'Brien and Johannes Wheeldon. It combines two papers into one (one on terminology and diagrammatic elicitation) and another one on the ontological consequences of using diagrams, drawings and cartoons. (This combination was due to an admin error - both papers are available in more detail on request.)

Text of Diagrammatic elicitation & When to use diagrams, drawings and cartoons?

  • 1. When to use a diagram, drawing or cartoon in participatory research? Exploring the ontological consequences of visual methods through activity theory
    Mark OBrien: Centre for Lifelong Learning, University of Liverpool
    TndeVarga-Atkins:Centre for Lifelong Learning, University of Liverpool
    Muriah Umoquit: Cancer Services & Policy Research Unit, Cancer Care Ontario
    Peggy Tso:Department of Health Policy, Management and Evaluation, University of Toronto
    Johannes Wheeldon:Faculty of Criminal Justice, Heritage University
    Second International Visual Methods conference
    14 Sep 2011
    Open University, UK

2. Does a diagram by any other name smell as sweet?
Placing diagrammatic elicitation in the spectrum of visual and verbal data collection
Muriah Umoquit: Cancer Services & Policy Research Unit, Cancer Care Ontario
Peggy Tso:Department of Health Policy, Management and Evaluation, University of Toronto
TndeVarga-Atkins:Centre for Lifelong Learning, University of Liverpool
Mark OBrien: Centre for Lifelong Learning, University of Liverpool
Johannes Wheeldon:Faculty of Criminal Justice, Heritage University
Second International Visual Methods conference
14 Sep 2011
Open University, UK
3. How it all came about?
Umoquitet al Systematic review on using diagrams in interviews: terminology!
Varga-Atkins & OBrien: drawings or diagrams?
Using diagrams in interviews
Common terminology is needed!(under reviewIJQM)
Drawings, diagrams or cartoons?
Cultural-historical activity theory and the visual in research: exploring the ontological consequences of the use visual methods
(preparing for special issue forIJRME)
Wheeldon: confusion between concept and mind maps!
4. Revised presentation outline
Part 1 diagrammatic elicitation
The problem of terminology in (visual) research methods:
The research context;
Terminology mismatch;
Defining diagrammatic elicitation:
What is a diagram;
Why terminology matters;
What is diagrammatic elicitation;
Part 2 drawings, diagrams and cartoons choice of research method bearing influence on research data? a trailer
5. The problem: whats in a name?
Rose
Method name
Method
Correspondence important!!!

  • Able to instruct participant

6. Able to analyse 7. Interdisciplinary research 8. Share research experiences, methods etc.Correspondence (name = signifier) is not important
9. Terminology mismatch: A
Participatory diagramming
Post-it notes arranged by groups to make prioritized lists
Interviewees drew out a
visual diagram
VS
Hopkins 2006
Umoquit et al 2010
10. Terminology mismatch: B
Graphic elicitation
Interviewees created a diagram to show informal and formal networks
Interviewees verbally edited researcher prepared diagrams
VS
Varga-Atkins, OBrien 2009
Crilly et al 2006
11. Purpose: multidisciplinary terminology
Define what a diagram is
Place diagramming in context of elicitation
Diagrammatic elicitation
Define subcategories of
diagrammatic elicitation
12. What is a diagram?
Diagram?
13. What is a diagram?
cartoons
Adapted and visualised from Banks (2001)
14. What is a diagram?
(Table adapted from Varga-Atkins and OBrien (2009) and Engelhardt (2002)) Umoquit et al, forthcoming
15. Multidisciplinary terminology: who?
16. What is the data?
= data
= data
e.g. Haidet et al 2008
e.g. West et al. 200o
= data
e.g. Jafri et al 2008
17. Summary: broad, inclusive framework
Diagrammatic Elicitation
A diagram is...
while a concept map is...
and a mind map is...
Network maps
Diagrams
Concept maps
Tables
Mind maps
Geographical maps
Organisational charts
Drawings
Interdisciplinary dialogue
18. Which method for what?
The purpose/focus of the research will determine which diagram type is suitable (network maps, mind maps or organisational charts).
Same true when it comes to the choice between diagrams and other graphic representation methods.
Progression: we came to appreciate that (graphic) research tools are not ontologically neutral.
Credit to Mark OBrien (theoretical lense: activity theory).
19. Part 2: ontological consequences
Data
Visual (graphic) methods
Diagrams
Researcher
Drawings
Cartoons
Theoretical lense: cultural-historical activity theory
20. Diagrams
Researcher: settling, levelling, helped with facilitation;
Participant: understood easily, no drawing skills
The research: birds eye view: allows conceptualising, contrasting, and comparing; abstraction: allowed to focus on network relationships
21. Drawings
Researcher: process alerting them to importance of meaning making
Participant: reduces boundary between researcher and participant; friendly
The research: interpretations and to express their meaning
Mair and Kierans 2007: draw and write method
Also : Nossiter and Biberman
22. Cartoons (drawn characters)
Parents experience about taking their baby to classroom with
types and mood cards
Researcher: relaxed participants, intimacy, demystifying research
Participant: seeking resemblances, switching between first / third person
The research: able to get at feelings, emotions, psychological states
23. Summary
The research methods adopted can affect the kinds of data produced in the research output (theoretical lense: activity theory)
24. Questions
?
?
?
Contact: TndeVarga-Atkinstva@liv.ac.uk
http://academia.edu
If you are interested in a fuller discussiondiscussion please sign up on paper to a potential webinar (please put your name and email)
25. References
Banks, M. (2001). Visual Methods in social research. London: Sage.
Crilly N, Blackwell A, Clarkson P. Graphic elicitation: using research diagrams as interview stimuli. Qualitative Research. 2006; 6.
Hopkins, P. (2006). Youth transitions and going to university: the perceptions of students attending a geography summer school access programme.Area, 38, 240-247.
Umoquit, M. J., Dobrow, M. J., Lemieux-Charles, L., Ritvo, P. G., Urbach, D. R., & Wodchis, W. P. (2008). The efficiency and effectiveness of utilizing diagrams in interviews: an assessment of participatory diagramming and graphic elicitation. BMC Medical Research Methodology, 8(53).
Umoquit, M. J., Tso, P., Burchett, H. E. D., & Dobrow, M. J. (2011) A multidisciplinary systematic review of the use of diagrams as a means of collecting data from research subjects: application, benefits and recommendations. BMC Medical Research Methodology, 11(11).
Umoquit, M., Tso, P., Varga-Atkins, T., O'Brien, M., Wheeldon, J. Diagrammatic elicitation: defining the use of diagrams in data collection. International Journal of Qualitative Methods(in review).
Varga-Atkins, T. & O'Brien, M. (2009). From drawings to diagrams: Maintaining researcher control during graphic elicitation in qualitative interviews.International Journal of Research & Methods in Education, 32.
Wheeldon, J. & Faubert, J. (2009a). Framing Experience: Concept Maps, Mind Maps and Data Collection in Qualitative Research. International Journal of Qualitative Methods, 8, 68-83.
Wheeldon, J. & Faubert, J. (2009b). Framing Experience: Concept Maps, Mind Maps, and Data Collection in Qualitative Research.International Journal of Qualitative Methods, 8, 68-83.
West, D. C., Pomeroy, J. R., Park, J. K., Gerstenberger, E. A., & Sandoval, J. (2000). Critical thinking in graduate medical education: A role for concept mapping assessment?Journal of the American Medical Association, 284, 1105-1110.