Demonstrating, regulating and celebrating community forestry REDD in Cambodia, Indonesia and Papua New Guinea

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Dr. D. Andrew Wardell Presentation for the conference on Taking stock of smallholders and community forestry Montpellier France March 24-26, 2010

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  • 1. Demonstrating, Regulating and Celebrating Community Forestry REDD in Cambodia, Indonesia and Papua New Guinea Dr. D. Andrew Wardell Taking stock of smallholder and community forestry Where do we go from here? CIFOR/CIRAD/IRD, Montpellier 24-26 March 2010 Norad grant GLO 4244, INS 09/010/Rockefeller Foundation grant 2009 COR 202
  • 2. Outline
    • Why community forestry and REDD?
    • Cambodia
    • Indonesia
    • Papua New Guinea
    • Concluding remarks
  • 3. Case study framework
    • Focus on a two year period (2007-2009); work in progress; REDD still being invented.
    • Context
      • Forestry/decentralization reforms
      • Progress with community forestry
      • REDD readiness and projects
    • Case study a REDD project or an event
  • 4. Why community forestry and REDD?
    • Community forestry not yet performing well
      • Custodians of the land/resources?
      • Moving out of poverty?
    • Limits of decentralization in practice
    • REDD financing the missing link?
    • Early optimism and cautionary notes
  • 5.
  • 6.
    • Community forest management
    • State-granted privileges and management by restriction, exclusion and fear
    • Legal pluralism and the negotiation of access and rights
    • Untying rights to resources from the territorial claims of the state
    • Rents of non-enforcement
    Contradictory forest policies?
  • 7.
    • Invites Parties to further strengthen and support ongoing efforts to reduce emissions from deforestation and forest degradation on a voluntary basis;
    • 3. Further encourages Parties to explore a range of actions, identify options and undertake efforts, including demonstration activities , to address the drivers of deforestation relevant to their national circumstances.
    Decision 2/CP.13
  • 8.
    • War - commodification of forests
    • Peace accord, 1991
    • Moratorium on forest concessions, (3.4m ha), 31.12.2000
    • Commune Sangkat Law, 2001
    • Economic Land Concessions, 2005
    • Annual Bidding Coupes w/e 2007
    • Organic Law, 2008
    • Global Witness, 1999-Oct. 2009
    Cambodia - Context
  • 9.
    • Sub-Decree on CF, 2003
    • prakas 8-step CF process
    • CF training materials and mapping services
    • 124 CF sites protected by law (15 years + 15)
    • Community vs. conservation forestry ( Rectangular Strategy II, Nov. 2008)
    • 2 million ha CF by 2020 (19% of national forest estate)
    Cambodia Community Forestry
  • 10.
  • 11.
    • Two demonstration projects
      • Oddar Meanchey
      • Seima BCA
    • Sar Char Nor 699, May 2008
    • R-PIN, March 2009
    • UN-REDD Observer, Nov. 2009
    • REDD Task Force, Jan. 2010
    • Replication CF REDD in Siem Reap (37 CF sites)
    Cambodia REDD readiness
  • 12.
    • Bundled 13 CF sites economies of scale
    • Avoided mosaic deforestation METH dual validation (VCS)
    • Co-benefits (CCB Standard)
    • Cancellation/conversion of ELCs
    • Secure tenure for CF groups
    • Border dispute with Thailand
    • Benefit-sharing/distribution
    Oddar Meanchey CF REDD Project
  • 13. Cambodia - strengthening CF?
  • 14.
    • 130m ha of state forest land
    • Land rights weakly-recognized in 1960 Agrarian Law
    • Dominance of forest concession model (timber, plywood, pulp and paper and potentially, REDD), 1960s to present
    • Recentralizing while decentralizing do forests or communities benefit?
    • Ministry of Forestry a vertically-integrated bureaucracy
    Indonesia - Context
  • 15.
    • Regulation 6/2007 (34/2002 and 1/2004) 4 options, viz.
      • Village Forestry
      • Community Forestry
      • Peoples Plantation Forests
      • Partnerships between communities and concessionaires
    • Less than 40% of all properties with title (BPN - Sertipikat )
    • Very few ulayat (collective) tenure rights recognized
    • Historical CF focus in Java
    • 2.1 million ha by 2010 (1.6% of forest estate)
    Indonesia Community Forestry
  • 16. Community forestry - Java
  • 17.
    • IFCA process (pre-COP.13)
    • A plethora of MOF regulations
    • P. 36 (11 benefit-sharing models)
    • National MRV system(s)
    • R-Plan endorsed
    • UN-REDD Fast track funds, 2009
    • Inter and intra-institutional factionalism
    • ca. 25 REDD projects
    Indonesia REDD readiness
  • 18.
    • Ecosystem Restoration License
    • High carbon density forests
    • Avoided Planned Deforestation METH dual validation (VCS)
    • Community benefits Puter/FPP
    • MOF vs provincial regulations
      • Spatial planning
      • Environmental Impact Assessments
    • A new generation of concessionaires?
    Katingan peat forest REDD Project
  • 19. Katingan peat forest REDD project
  • 20. Indonesia a geographic disconnect?
  • 21.
    • Customary ownership of PNGs land (97%)
    • Dominance of (Malaysian) logging industry
    • PNG Forest Authority
    • FMAs negotiated with Incorporated Land Groups and concessionaires
    • PNGFAs 34 step process
    Papua New Guinea - Context
  • 22.
    • State of PNGs Forests, 1972-2002
      • Subsistence agriculture (45.6%)
      • Logging (48.2%)
      • Mining (6%)
      • Forest fires (4.4%)
      • Plantations (1%)
      • Logging, Legality and Livelihoods
      • Creation of OCC (NEC 56/2008) and proposed structures (TAB, NAB and IAB)
    PNG Context 2
  • 23. PNG log exports, 1978-2007
  • 24.
    • Systematic failure of ICDPs
    • Earlier efforts to develop CF and PES (FORCERT and Eco Forestry Forum, 2007-09)
    • Community-based forest enterprises (mobile sawmills)
    • Village REDD concept (WCS)
    • Potential of provincial forest governance (EHP and Medang Provinces)
    PNG Community Forestry
  • 25.
    • COP.11 to COP. 13
    • National vs. sub-national REDD
    • Coalition of Rainforest Nations
    • OCC-ES and OCC-CT
    • 3-tier structure proposed
    • Suspension of Exec. Director/OCC
    • Parliamentary Public Accounts Committee investigation
    • No credible projects
    PNG REDD readiness
  • 26.
    • CRFN 3 representatives only
    • Maya Lin, Vivienne Westwood, Bianca Jagger, some large conservation NGOs et al
    • 5 awards (WIM Foundation)
    • Absence of a PNG REDD project
    • Edelman PR (on behalf of CRFN)
    • McKinsey & Company (Jan. 2010)
    • Carbon is my government now
    PNG REDD+ Gala Event, COP.15
  • 27. PNG - celebrating REDD on the worlds stage?
  • 28.
    • Need to align forest sector reforms more closely with broader decentralization reforms
    • Rights to land = rights to trees = rights to carbon?
    • Moving beyond the REDD project approval culture governance of future benefit-sharing and distribution mechanisms
    Concluding Remarks