Controlling 2

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  • 1. CONTROLLING Part Two Nelia B. Perez RN, MSN College of NursingNortheastern College Santiago City 3311

2. Establishment of Objectives and Methods for Measuring Performance

  • Task analysis
  • -actions and procedures are inspected
  • -written guides, schedules, rules, records, and budgets.
  • -uses tools as time studies and checklist
  • Quality Control
  • -Activities and techniques employed to achieve and maintain the quality of a product, service or process.
  • -includes a monitoring activity of but is also concerned with finding and eliminating causes of problems so that the requirements of the customer are continually met.

3. Measuring actual Performance

  • An ongoing, repetitive process with the actual frequency dependent on the type of activity being measured.

4. PERFORMANCE MATCHES STANDARDS & OBJECTIVES PERFORMANCE IS CONTRARY TO STANDARDS & OBJECTIVES SET 5. RESPONSIBILITY OF HEAD / SENIOR NURSE 6. The Dreaded Performance Appraisal 7. Im always ready to learn, although I do not always like being taught. Winston Churchill 8. Conducting A Performance Review 9. What Do Managers Like Least?

  • Firing an employee
  • Performance appraisals

10. Managers take a big share of the credit for success. We also have to take the blame for failures including those of our staff. 11. You play a major role with those you supervise. Your staff wants to know your opinion of their work. Talk to them regularly as part of your ongoing coaching. 12. SETTING STANDARDS 13. Setting Standards Everyone doing a job should know what he/she is expected to do. Standards must be attainable. There must be a point against which performance can be measured. 14. Setting Standards Involve your staff in setting standards. Self-evaluation will then become automatic. Corrective action can be taken immediately. You provide the encouragement to stay on target. 15. ACTION STEPS 16. Action Steps Working with Human Resources: Review your departments job descriptions. If needed, add a list of standards to be met. Design an evaluation system how will you measure performance? 17. Theres More! Part 2: Structuring the performance review Review and preparation Putting the employee (and you!) at ease Giving feedback 18. Theres More! Part 3: Giving negative feedback & setting goals Structure for giving negative feedback Reviewing last years goals/setting new goals Career development plans What NOT to do Ending on a positive note 19. PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL 20. PURPOSE

  • COMPENSATION
  • CAREER PLANNING
  • FEEDBACK
  • TRAINING
  • HUMAN RESOURCE PLANNING
  • EXIT
  • RESEARCH
  • MOTIVATION IS THE OVERALL PURPOSE

21. WHAT IS APPRAISED?

  • INDIVIDUAL TASK OUTCOMES
  • BEHAVIOUR
  • TRAITS
  • COLLECTIVE OUTCOMES
  • COLLECTIVE PROCESSES
  • WHAT IS EXPECTED OF THE PERSON?

22. WHO APPRAISES?

  • IMMEDIATE SUPERIOR
  • HIGHER LEVELS
  • PEERS
  • SELF
  • IMMEDIATE SUBORDINATES
  • COMMITTEE

23. METHODS OF APPRAISAL

  • WRITTEN ESSAYS (ACR)
  • Final appraisals are frequently in a written narrative form
  • Supervisor rates employees:
    • Performance factor or skill
    • Give examples & an improvement plan
    • Explains good & bad performance areas
  • Subjective
  • CRITICAL INCIDENTS

24. GRAPHICAL RATING SCALES

  • Define the Traits
  • Potential Appraisal

25. BEHAVIOURALLY ANCHORED RATING SCALES (BARS)

  • BARS combine best features of narrative, critical incidents, and quantified scales
    • Generate critical incidents
    • Develop performance dimensions
    • Reallocate incidents
    • Scale the incidents
    • Develop a final instrument

26. BARS for grocery clerks by critical incidents in 8 areas

  • Knowledge and judgment
  • Conscientiousness
  • Skill in human relations
  • Skill in operation of register
  • 1 Extrmly Poor |Poor |Avg
  • Skill in bagging
  • Ability of checkout work
  • Skill in monetary transactions
  • Observational ability
  • Good |Extremely Good 9

27. APPRAISAL BY OBJECTIVES

  • Set the organizations goals
  • Set the departmental goals
  • Discuss developmental goals
  • Define expected results
  • Performance reviews
  • Provide feedback

28. METHODS OF APPRAISAL (Contd.)

  • MULTI PERSON COMPARISON
    • Paired Comparison
    • Forced Distribution
    • Merck began using this rating method for certain employees when it found other methods resulted in 80% of employees rated a 4 or higher on a 5 point scale.
  • 360 DEGREE APPRAISAL
    • Very Existence Helps
    • Anonymous?

29. METHODS OF APPRAISAL (Cotd.)

  • ELCTRONIC MEASUREMENT
    • Surveillance?
    • 30 Million in 1996
    • Spend $ 1 b
  • AMERICAN CIVIL LIBERTIES UNION

30. BALANCED SCORECARD (Kaplan & Norton) 31. BIASES

  • SINGLE CRITERION
  • LENIENCY ERROR
    • If you are incompetent they would say perhaps needs some training. you need an eye, I mean you have to be sort of criminologist, because youll find that very little negative stuff is said
  • HALO ERROR
  • SIMILARITY ERROR
  • LOW DIFFERENTIATION
    • Central Tendency

32. BIASES (Contd.)

  • FORCING INFORMATION TO MATCH CRITERIA
  • DEFENSIVE REACTION
    • It is one of the most difficult things we ask line managers to do. You have to continue to work with these people, count on them. They are critical to your success. And all of a sudden you are the judge .
  • LATE FEEDBACK
  • PERSONAL BIASES

33. OVERCOMING PROBLEMS

  • USE MULTIPLE CRITERIA
  • DE-EMPHASISE TRAITS
  • USE MULTIPLE EVALUATORS
  • EVALUATE SELECTIVELY
  • FOCUS ON TRAINING NOT REWARDS

34. OVERCOMING PROBLEMS (Contd.)

  • FROM FITTING IN A JOB TO CONTINUOUS LEARNING
  • TRAIN APPRAISER
  • DIARY KEEPING
    • Keep a diary of critical incidents
  • GRIEVANCE HANDLING SYSTEM
  • CAREFUL RECORD KEEPING

35. OVERCOMING PROBLEMS (Contd.)

  • INVOLVE USERS IN DESIGNING THE SYSTEM
  • REWARD FOR PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL
  • PERFORMANCE INTERVIEW
    • Handle Sensitively
    • Open/ direct/ objective

36. Fed ExAppraisal Example

  • Uses a three-phase upward feedback system - Survey Feedback Action (SFA)
    • Yearly anonymous HR standard survey
    • Feedback session between manager and group
    • Action plan phase
      • What is the concern?What is your analysis?What is the cause?What should be done?

37. WHAT HAPPENS TO THE TEAM WORK? WHO IS APPRAISED? 38. An Activity in Performance Appraisal ADDRESSING SALLYS ERRORS IN JUDGEMENT You are a senior student nurse and this is your sixth week of MS + Leadership Clinical Focus.Your CI assigns two students to work together in caring got gour to six patients.The students alternate fulfilling leader and follower roles and providing total patient care. This is the second full day that you have worked as a team with Sally Kayumanggi. 39. Last week, when you were assigned with Sally, she was the leader and made numerous errors in judgment.She got a patient up who was on strict bed rest.She made an IV Medication error giving a medication to the wrong patient.She gave Nubain too soon because she forgot to record the time in the therapeutic sheet and she frequently did not seem to know what was wrong with her patients. 40. Today you have been the leader and have observed her contaminate a dressing and forget to observe the 5 basic rights twice when she was giving medications.When you asked her about checking placement of the NGT, she did not know how to perform this skill. You have heard some of the other students complain about Sally.What is your obligation to your patients, your fellow students, the Clinical Agency (Hospital) and your instruct