Digital Basics Capture Light Manual Mode

Citizen Classes, Beginners Photography

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Page 1: Citizen Classes, Beginners Photography

Digital Basics Capture Light Manual Mode

Page 2: Citizen Classes, Beginners Photography

TERMINOLOGY: • Exposure: combination of Shutter & Aperture & ISO

• Exposure Reading: light meter reading of your shutter & aperture combination

example: ( 1/125 @ f11 )

• Exposure ZEROED: EV scale is centered ( balance of Shutter + Aperture )

• EV: exposure value – measurement of light

• Shutter: curtain that opens allowing light to expose sensor- 1/sec.

• Aperture: bladed diaphragm in lens that opens and closes

• ISO: sensitivity of your camera to record light

• Over Exposure: to much light creating bright photographs

• Under Exposure: not enough light creating dark photographs

• Density: the amount of light detail in your photographs

• Shadow density: the darkest area in your photograph

• Highlight density: the lightest area in your photograph

• Depth of Field: the focus distance in front and behind subject

• Shoot (shooting): slang for taking picture

• Scene: the total area in your view finder

• Subject: the area in your photography that is your point of interest

• Ambient or Available Light: the existing light in your scene indoor or outdoor

Page 3: Citizen Classes, Beginners Photography

Manual Mode: understanding exposure and camera functions

1. You control all camera functions and exposure

Page 4: Citizen Classes, Beginners Photography

Camera settings: shooting setup • Manual Mode: use for total control

• ISO: indoors start at ISO 400 – outdoors start at ISO 200

• WB: set to AWB ( average or auto white balance )

• Quality : High JPEG ( RAW for advanced )

• Focus target: center ( AUTO FOCUS not MANUAL FOCUS )

• Meter Mode: center weighed ( spot for advanced)

• Flash: turn flash on, locate flash compensation

Page 5: Citizen Classes, Beginners Photography

Shutter Speed: designated by 1/125


• Controls subject movement and camera blur

• Control for stopping action (higher your ISO the faster you can shoot)

• Shutter speed refers to fraction of a second

1/15 – 1/30 – 1/60 – 1/125 – 1/250 – 1/500

Page 6: Citizen Classes, Beginners Photography

Aperture: designated by f/numbers called f/stops


• Allows light to enter camera by the size of the diaphragm

• The larger the f/number the smaller the diaphragm allowing less light into camera

• The larger the f/number the more DEPTH of FIELD ( range of sharpness)

Page 7: Citizen Classes, Beginners Photography

Aperture DEPTH of FIELD: • Determines the range of sharpness in front and behind subject

• The larger the APERTURE the more depth of field and sharpness

f5.6 f16

( Less Depth of Field ) ( More Depth of Field )

Page 8: Citizen Classes, Beginners Photography


f5.6 f22

f5.6 f22

Page 9: Citizen Classes, Beginners Photography

Camera LIGHT METER: • EV ( exposure value ) bar scale in finder

• Meter scale explanation: under, over and center point

Page 10: Citizen Classes, Beginners Photography

Light Meter Reading : simplified • Exposure is always balance of SHUTTER + APERTURE + (ISO)

• When metering adjust your SHUTTER & APERTURE till exposure is ZEROED

• Rule of Thumb: when you adjust one control you need to adjust the other

( example: NORMAL exposure -1/125 @ f11 : 1/250 @ f8 )

Page 11: Citizen Classes, Beginners Photography

Flash: photographers best friend!

• Adds light to your dark areas

• Stops subject movement

• Flash power is controlled by f/stop & TTL capabilities thru lens


shadow exposure background exposure FLASH exposure

Page 12: Citizen Classes, Beginners Photography

• Lets Take some FOTOS • 1. Team up for OUTDOORS: Canon/Nikon

• Normal EXPOSURE in sunlight

• Normal EXPOSURE in shadow

• Normal EXPOSURE with flash

Page 13: Citizen Classes, Beginners Photography

ISO: controls the light sensitivity of your camera

• ISO choices range from ISO 100 to ISO 6400

• The lower your ISO the better overall quality

• Increased NOISE is common with higher ISO’s

• Rule of Thumb: Indoors you want a high ISO 400 & above

Outdoors you want a low ISO 200 & less

• The higher your ISO the faster you may shoot

Page 14: Citizen Classes, Beginners Photography

Image Quality: based on how many PIXELS you use

• PIXEL: picture element

• Rule of Thumb: determine what size your final image will be printed or

viewed. Standard printers use a 300 dpi setting for their print quality.

If you multiply 300 dpi x both sides or your print size, you will get the

correct Pixel count for that size of reproduction:

( example: 8x10 print - 300 x 8” = 2400 ppi & 300 x 10” = 3000 ppi )

• File format determines maximum image quality: RAW or JPEG

Page 15: Citizen Classes, Beginners Photography

Focus Mode: Manual or AUTO

• Remember when focus is in Manual Mode your shutter will release

whether you are in focus or not

• Auto Focus normally chooses the closest subject in your target

• Auto Focus also relies on contrast or the lightest value in your target

• You will always have more control with focus on your subject if you

set your focus mode to SINGLE or ONE Shot Mode

Page 16: Citizen Classes, Beginners Photography

WB (white balance): color temperature of light

• AWB: auto white balance uses camera default for proper color

• Two distinct color balance that are widely used: Daylight & Tungsten

• Proper application of your CUSTOM WHITE BALANCE will give you

the best WHITE BALANCE of your digital images

• RAW does not allow for CUSTOM WHITE BALANCE

Page 17: Citizen Classes, Beginners Photography

FLASH: auxiliary light source

• Your FLASH can be your savior in difficult light situations

• Your FLASH will save those photographs with horrible shadows

• The trick to applying your FLASH is always balance your FLASH

exposure to match your AVAILABLE light in your scene

• Your FLASH also is your tool to stopping action

• Remember that your f/stop controls the power output of your FLASH