Ch2 American Horizons

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Early Exploration

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  • 1. AMERICANHORIZONSChapter 2Colonists on theMargins, 1565-1640

2. CHAPTER 2: COLONISTS ON THE MARGINS, 1565-1640Common Threads How did expanding European settlements andincreased trade reshape Indian life and affectrelations between Indian groups? Why did people immigrate to North America, andhow did their reasons for coming influence coloniallife and society? What influence did religion have on NorthAmerican colonization and relations betweencolonists and Indians? What were the origins of slavery in North America? 3. INTRODUCTIONAttempting to lure new investors, the Virginia Company broughta deputation of Algonquian Indians to London in 1616. The visitbrought new funds, but English failure to show properconsideration for their Indian allies offended the guests. TheEnglish behavior typified relationships between colonists andIndians, as settlers disrespected Indians and took their land,particularly after the English became more established around1640 . Matoaka (Pocahontas) Uttamatomakkin John Smith 4. CHAPTER 2: COLONISTS ONTHE MARGINS, 1565-1640IntroductionConquest Begins and Trade Expands,1565-1607European Islands in an Algonquian Ocean,1607-1625Seeking God, Seizing Land, Reaping Conflict,1625-c.1640 5. CHAPTER 2: COLONISTS ONTHE MARGINS, 1565-1640IntroductionConquest Begins and Trade Expands, 1565-1607Spain Stakes Claims to FloridaNew Spain into the SouthwestEngland Enters Eastern North AmericaImports and a Changing Indian Northeast 6. CONQUEST BEGINS ANDTRADE EXPANDS, 1565-1607OVERVIEWSpain: Florida, New MexicoEngland: Spains rival in North AmericaIndian competition and cultural changetrade with European fishermenWhat motives did Indians have for trading or entering alliances with Europeans inthis period?What motives did Indians have for conflict with Europeans in this period? 7. CONQUEST BEGINS ANDTRADE EXPANDS, 1565-1607OUTLINESpains tenuous coloniesFloridaFranciscan missionary basemonitor English activityprotect Atlantic shippingSpains tenuous coloniesNew Mexicoexpensivesome success for Franciscans 8. CONQUEST BEGINS ANDTRADE EXPANDS, 1565-1607OUTLINE, cont.England under Queen Elizabethpolitical stability, increased population, global tradeEnglish colonizationoutlet for population expansion, hope for economic growth, opposeSpain/CatholicismRoanokes failureNortheastern Indiansfur trade with European fishermen, then French tradersEuropean goodsused to dominate other Indianshelpful for women especially 9. Go West, Old Chap, Go West For most of the 16th century, England was too poorand too timid to do much about the two newcontinents opening up. By 1604, when England and Spain signed a peacetreaty, the English had several reasons for branchingout. 10. Englands reasons Wool: Englands woolen industry was booming in thelate 1500s and early 1600s. Farms were turned intopastures for more and more sheep. Tenant farmerswere forced off the land, so they needed somewhereto go. Overpopulation: Even though the entire populationof about 4 million was less than half that of modern-dayLondon, many Englishmen wanted lesscrowding. 11. Englands reasons Religious dissent: Protestantism had developed inthe 16th century. Even though the country had itsown state and Protestant church, many EnglishProtestants felt it wasnt different enough than theCatholic Church. They were looking for a place to goto begin their own version of Christianity. Economic incentive: a middle class of merchants,speculators, and entrepreneurs had formed. Bypooling their resources in joint stock companies.They could invest and harvest new resources for aprofit. 12. Conquest Begins and Trade Expands,1565-1607 Conquest Begins and Trade Expands, 1565-1607:Spain maintained Florida and expanded into NewMexico during the 1500s and early 1600s, largely at thebehest of the Franciscans. At the same time, a stable England under QueenElizabeth showed renewed interest in settling in thewestern hemisphere, mainly to provide a base forcontinued attacks on Spanish shipping. In the northeastern portions of North America, Indianstraded furs to French traders in exchange for Europeangoods that would come to transform Indian life andpower relations. 13. Conquest Begins and Trade Expands,1565-1607 Florida remained a tenuous Spanish colony, as Indianand European attacks and a lack of settler interest nearlycaused its demise. However, the Spanish crown continued its support as abase for Franciscan missionary activity, a means ofmonitoring English activity to the north, and an outpostto protect Atlantic shipping. With dreams of wealth and fame, Oate led the firstsuccessful Spanish incursion into New Mexico. Though there were no riches to be found and the colonyproved costly, Franciscan missionaries had some successthere, eventually holding the most power after Oate wasremoved from office for a variety of abuses. 14. Conquest Begins and Trade Expands,1565-1607 Under Queen Elizabeth, England enjoyed political stability,increased population, and world-wide merchant activity. By the late 1500s, some English supported American colonization asan outlet for population pressure, a new field for economicexpansion, and a means of opposing Spain and Catholicism. The first English colonization attempt, at Roanoke, in NorthCarolina during the 1580s, eventually failed, in part because ofviolence they directed at the Algonquians. Indians in the northeastern portion of North America engaged inthe fur trade, first with European fishermen and then withspecialized French merchants. This exchange began to transform Indian communities as thosewith the most access to traders used European imports to dominatetheir neighbors. The goods also made life easier, especially for Indian women, andsome Indian groups came to depend highly on the imports. 15. CHAPTER 2: COLONISTS ONTHE MARGINS, 1565-1640European Islands in an Algonquian Ocean,1607-1625Tsenacommacah and VirginiaNew France, New Netherland, New Indian NortheastGlobal Passages: Angelas OrdealPilgrims and Algonquians 16. EUROPEAN ISLANDS IN ANALGONQUIAN OCEAN, 1607-1625OVERVIEWEuropeans to Algonquian landsSt. Lawrence River to Chesapeake BayFrench and Dutch speakers (few) & English speakersrely on Algonquian food, knowledgeEnglish conflict with AlgonquiansHow might history have changed if John Smith had accepted the role Powhatanenvisioned for him? 17. EUROPEAN ISLANDS IN ANALGONQUIAN OCEAN, 1607-1625OUTLINETsenocommacahexpansion under Wahunsonacock (Powhatan)Jamestown -- included?John Smith resistswar: Tsenocommacah vs. VirginiaVirginia Company formedAfrican laborsome slaves, some indentured servantslaw and representationHouse of BurgessesFrench: St. Lawrence River Valleysaved by alliance with IndiansDutch: Hudson River Valleytrade: Dutch West India Company 18. EUROPEAN ISLANDS IN ANALGONQUIAN OCEAN, 1607-1625OUTLINE, cont.AngelaAngola to JamestownPilgrimsMayflower CompactIndian deaths by Euroasian diseaseCorn trade and wampum network 19. European Islands in an AlgonquianOcean, 1607-1625 The English, at Jamestown and Plymouth,established colonies, originally relying onAlgonquian support and tenuous friendship. Within a few years, relations soured, leading toconflict and tension. The French and Dutch colonies maintained betterrelations with their Indian neighbors, formingalliances and engaging in mutually beneficial trade. 20. European Islands in an AlgonquianOcean, 1607-1625 In 1607, English colonists, under the VirginiaCompany, established Jamestown within thepowerful Indian lands of Tsenacommacah. Warfare flared between the two groups throughoutthe next twenty years, as the English refused toacknowledge the Indians power and authority. 21. European Islands in an AlgonquianOcean, 1607-1625 The Virginia Company struggled to turn a profit, findingno precious metals and losing colonists to disease andIndian attack. Attempting to stabilize the colony and its finances, thecompany expanded tobacco agriculture, provided land tosettlers, relinquished governance to the colonists, andintroduced African labor. New settlers flooded the colony between 1619 and 1622,which provoked a massive attack from Tsenacommacahthat killed a quarter of the colonists and resulted in therevocation of the companys charter and the beginning ofroyal rule for the colony. 22. European Islands in an AlgonquianOcean, 1607-1625 The French moved into the St. Lawrence River valley,relying on an alliance with the Huron Confederacy toensure the safety of the colony and the continuation ofthe fur trade. Though little support came from the home country, theCatholic Church sent Jesuit missionaries to aid theFrench efforts. Similarly, the Dutch in the Hudson River valley receivedlittle support from the Netherlands and relied on theAlgonquian Indians in their area, manufacturing andtrading wampum with them to cement relations andtrade. 23. European Islands in an AlgonquianOcean, 1607-1625 Separatists who believed the Church of Englandcould never be reformed, the Pilgrims established asettlement at Plymouth in 1620, on lands whereIndians had recently been decimated by disease. The Pilgrims benefitted from the cleared lands andstored food of the deceased Indians and also fromthe willingness of the surviving chief, Massasoit, toform an alliance. Though it never thrived, the colony survived,developing trade with Indians to the north andjoining the Dutch-Algonquian wampum network. 24. European Islands in an AlgonquianOcean, 1607-1625 Most African slaves before 1640 came to the Englishcolonies by way of privateers who seized them afterattacking Spanish shipping. African slaves mainly hailed from West CentralAfrica, spoke one of two Bantu languages, andpracticed Christianity. These common bonds helped them persevere in theface of slavery and, sometimes, gain their freedom 25. CHAPTER 2: COLONISTS ONTHE MARGINS, 1565-1640Seeking God, Seizing Land, Reaping Conflict,1625-c.1640Missionaries and Indians in New France and New Me