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  • 1. Technology and Learning Barbara Kinast Susan Swan Smith George Washington University Educ 246 Spring 2010

2. Outline

  • I. Objective
  • II. Introduction
  • III. Research Supporting Technologys Effectiveness
  • IV. Research Refuting Technologys Effectiveness
  • V. Resources

3. I. Objectives

  • Convey a high-level understanding of recent research on technologys effectiveness in K-12 education
  • Spur consideration of technology-related issues that will face you as administrators
  • Provide context for each of you to decide what the role of technology in K-12 education should be

4. II. Introduction

  • Education is rich and intellectually rewarding,
  • entailing the posing of questions,
  • the examination of issues and
  • the search for adequate evidence.
  • - John Dewey (1933)
  • How We Think
  • The Question is:
  • Does technology help or hinder
  • education as Dewey characterizes it?

5. II. Introduction (Barron, 2003) 6.

  • Supportive Research
  • Our doubts are traitors,
  • And make us lose the good we oft might win
  • By fearing to attempt.
  • - Shakespeare
  • Measure for Measure(1.4)
  • Studies by Discipline
  • Studies on Teaching and Learning
  • Studies on 21 stCentury Students
  • Expectations & Suggestions

7. III.Supportive Research, cont.

  • Language Arts/English:
  • When students had computer assistance in Canadian literacy classes they demonstrated:
  • a higher level of engagement,
  • more active participation in class,
  • a deeper level of understanding.
  • Regardless of teacher knowledge or attitude.
  • (Davis, 2009)
  • Mathematics:
  • Key inequities in computer use are not in how often they are used, but how they are used.
  • Computer use to teach higher-order thinking skills, had a significant positive impact on eighth graders scores.
  • (Wenglinsky, 1998)

8. III.Supportive Research, cont.

  • Social Studies & History :
  • Students scores increase when technology is used because:
  • They have greater interest in doing research after exploring electronic resources,
  • Access to primary sources brings history alive for them, and
  • Their diverse learning styles were addressed.
  • Professional developmentimproved
  • Teachers technology skills,
  • Their teaching skills, and
  • Their confidence in using technology.
  • (Taylor, 2006)
  • Science:
  • Long-term, authentic research projects using information technology improved students:
  • Attitudes toward,
  • Perceptions of, and
  • Self-confidence in science.
  • Previous studies without the imbedded IT component were inconclusive.
  • (Kaya, 2007)

9. III.Supportive Research, cont.

  • Teaching Practices:
  • When one-to-on laptop program & professional development implemented:
  • increased student-centered teaching,
  • increased tool-based teaching, and
  • increased meaningful use of technology.
  • Some classroom practices did not change:
  • classroom organization, and
  • assessment practices.
  • The most significant changes were observed in areas where the professional development program had placed emphasis.
  • (Dawson, Cavanaugh and Ritzhaupt, 2008)

10. III.Supportive Research, cont.

  • Learning:
  • Students who use technologically innovative study methodsortraditional study methods do well on exams and attend class regularly.
  • Students who dobothdo not score as well or attend class as regularly; possibly because they do not feel they need to attend class and therefore miss important interpersonal interactions.
  • Students who doneither(no surprise) do more poorly than either of the other groups.
  • (Debevec, Shih and Kashyap, 2006)
  • Assessment:
  • Studentswho use 24/7 (web-based) access to performance measures regularly:
  • Are more motivated,
  • Perform better, and
  • Demonstrate self-regulating behavior.
  • Parentswho have access to performance measures feel:
  • More included in educational process, and
  • Better informed by teachers.
  • (Zappe, 2002)

11. III.Supportive Research, cont.

  • Student Expectations:
  • View the internet as integral to learning,
  • See internet as combination virtual textbook, tutor, study group, guidance counselor and backpack,
  • Use internet educationally outside the school day, and
  • Think not-so-engaging uses of technology are predominant in their classes.
  • Student Recommendations:
  • Better align classroom activities with how they use the Internet outside of class,
  • Increase the quality of technology and information available to them,
  • Put more emphasis on professional development for teachers and on media literacy skills for themselves, and, they caution,
  • The digital divide is a reality to be taken seriously.
  • (Pew, 2002)

12. IV.Contradictory Evidence

  • Once a new technology rolls over you,
  • if youre not part of the steamroller,
  • youre part of the road.
  • - Stewart Brand
  • Is technology worth the money spent?
  • Does technology produce higher achievement?

13. IV.Contradictory Research, cont.

  • Cost v. Benefit of Technology:
  • Computer-Aided Instruction (CAI):
  • requires a large investment of funds
  • leads to a decrease in funding of other programs
  • Results of study:
  • No evidence that increased use of computers raised scores
  • In some cases, students with increased computer use experienced a decrease in scores.
  • (Joshua Angrist and Victor Lavy, 2002)

14. IV.Contradictory Research, cont.

  • Cost v. Benefit of Technology:
  • U.S. government subsidies for technology/E-rate:
  • Designed to decrease the perceived digital divide
  • Urban, low-income schools with high minority populations are most likely to take advantage of E-rate programs.
  • Significantly increased the number of computers and the level of Internet access available to schools
  • Results of study:
  • A 66% increase in Internet access did not result in any measurable increase in school performance.
  • ( Austan Goolsbee and Jonathan Guryan, 2002)

15. IV.Contradictory Research, cont.

  • Cost v. Benefit of Technology:
  • Silicon Valley, California:
  • has more Technological wealth than most other areas in California and in the U.S.
  • does not show more innovative use of computers for instructional purposes than the rest of the state or country
  • Results of study:
  • Using a variety of surveys, Cuban found that higher levels of access to computers, Internet connectivity and computer literacy did not lead to changes in instructional practice.
  • ( Larry Cuban, 2001)

16. IV.Contradictory Research, cont.

  • Traditional v. Virtual Methods:
  • A study of concrete manipulatives v. virtual manipulatives:
  • Given equal instruction on equivalent fractions, students who used concrete manipulatives performed better than students using virtual manipulatives.
  • Results of study:
  • Students responded positively to both types of manipulatives.
  • Students performed better on posttests after interacting with concrete manipulatives.
  • ( Sonya Brown, 2007)

17. V.Resources

  • Angrist, J., Lavy, V. (2002, October).New Evidence on Classroom Computers and Pupil Learning.The Economic Journal,112, 735-765.Retrieved fromhttp://econ.www.mit.edu/file/22 .
  • Barron, A. E., Kemker, K., Harmes, C., Kalaydijian, K. (2003). Large-Scale Research Study in K-12 Schools:Technology Integration as It Relates to the National Educational Technology Standards.Journal of Research on Technology on Education , 35(4), 489-507. Retrieved fromwww.iste.org/ .
  • Brown, S. (2007).Counting Blocks or Keyboards?A Comparative Analysis of Concrete versus Virtual Manipulatives in Elementary School Mathematics Concepts.Retrieved fromhttp://www.eric.ed.gov . (ED499231)
  • Cuban, L. (2001).Oversold and Underused:Computers in the Classroom.Cambridge, MA:Harvard University Press.
  • Davis, J. M. (2009, April 20).Computer-Assisted Instruction (CAI) in Language Arts: Investigating the Influence of Teacher Knowledge and Attitudes on the Learning Environment.Retrieved fromhttp://www.eric.ed.gov . (ED505173)
  • Dawson, K., Cavanaugh, C., & Ritzhaupt, a. D. (2009)Floridas EETT Leveraging Laptops Initiative and Its Impact on Teaching Practices.Journal of Research on Technology on Education , 41(2), 143-159. Retrieved fromwww.iste.org/ . Debevec, K., Shih, M, & Kashyap, V. (2006). Learning Strategies and Performance in a Technology Integrated Classroom.Journal of Research on Technology in Education,38(3), 293-307. Retrieved fromhttp://www.eric.ed.gov/ . (EJ728906)
  • Debevec, K., Shih, M, & Kashyap, V. (2006). Learning Strategies and Performance in a Technology Integrated Classroom.Journal of Research on Technology in Education,38(3), 293-307. Retrieved fromhttp://www.eric.ed.gov/ . (EJ728906)

18. V.Resources

  • Dawson, K., Cavanaugh, C., & Ritzhaupt, a. D. (2009)Floridas EETT Leveraging Laptops Initiative and Its Impact on Teaching Practices.Journal of Research on Technology on Education , 41(2), 143-159. Retrieved fromwww.iste.org/ . Debevec, K., Shih, M, & Kashyap, V. (2006). Learning Strategies and Performance in a Technology Integrated Classroom.Journal of Research on Technology in Education,38(3), 293-307. Retrieved fromhttp://www.eric.ed.gov/ . (EJ728906)
  • Debevec, K., Shih, M, & Kashyap, V. (2006). Learning Strategies and Performance in a Technology Integrated Classroom.Journal of Research on Technology in Education,38(3), 293-307. Retrieved fromhttp://www.eric.ed.gov/ . (EJ728906)
  • Goolsbee, A., Guryan, J. (2002, August).The Impact of Internet Subsidies in Public Schools.NBER Working Paper Series.Cambridge,MA.Retrieved fromhttp://www.eric.ed.gov . (ED468062)
  • Kaya, O. N., Ebenezer, J. (2007, April).High School Students' Affective Dispositions in Science: Scientific Inquiry with Information Technologies . Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of theAmerican Educational Research Association . Chicago, IL. Retrieved fromhttp://www.eric.ed.gov . (ED500737)

19. V.Resources

  • Kingsley, K. V., Boone, R. (2009). Effects of Multimedia Software on Achievement of Middle School Students in an American History Class.Journal of Research on Technology on Education , 41(2), 203-221. Retrieved fromwww.iste.org/ .
  • Wenglinsky, H. (1998).Does It Compute? The Relationship between Educational Technology and Student Achievement in Mathematics . Princeton, NJ: Educational Testing Service. Retrieved fromhttp://www.eric.ed.gov . (ED425191)
  • Zappe, S. M.; Sonak, B. C.; Hunter, M. W.; & Suen, H. K. (2002, April).The Effects of a Web-Based Information Feedback System on Academic Achievement Motivation and Performance of Junior High School Students . Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of theAmerican Educational Research Association . New Orleans. Retrieved fromhttp://www.eric.ed.gov/ . (ED468915)