Can we develop TV drama corpus-informed English vocabulary materials for elementary-level EFL learners?

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  • Can we develop TV drama corpus-informed

    English vocabulary materials for elementary-level EFL learners?

    Hiroya TanakaHokkai-Gakuen University

    tanaka-h@hgu.jp

    2nd Joint International Methodology Research Colloquium Feb. 16, 2016 @Tenbusu Naha, Okinawa, Japan

  • Menu

    1. Background - Why?

    2. Purpose - What?

    3. Method - How?

    4. Results and Discussion - Where to?

  • 1. Background - Why?

    Problem

    Insufficient input both in quantity and quality

    1.1 Elementary-level EFL learners in Japan

  • Input sufficient in quantity?

    Authorized English textbook for JHS

    Sunshine English Course 1 ~ 3, Kairyudo

    headword: 1,241 words

    token: 6,131 words ( + appendices = 7,583 words)

    1.1 Elementary-level EFL learners in Japan

  • token: 6,131 words ( + appendices = 7,583 words)

    = 24 pages in a paperback novel

    1.1 Elementary-level EFL learners in Japan

  • Input sufficient in quantity?

    1.1 Elementary-level EFL learners in Japan

    textbook drill dictionary

  • Input sufficient in quantity and quality?

    1.1 Elementary-level EFL learners in Japan

    vocabulary book

  • (example) celebrate

    This is the festival celebrating the end of the year. (Textbook A)

    We celebrated Johns birthday. (Book A)

    celebrate our fathers birthday (Book B)

    Quite a few people have been invited to celebrate the couples anniversary. (Book C)

    1.1 Elementary-level EFL learners in Japan

  • 1.1 Elementary-level EFL learners in Japan

    Input sufficient in quality?

    Lack in function (to-whom, for-what, where, when?)

    Little attention to Politeness? (neg-politeness / pos-politeness / without redressive action, baldly)

    Mostly one-way

  • Need for sufficient input both in quantity and quality

    1.1 Elementary-level EFL learners in Japan

    Need for more exposure to everyday life English

  • 1. Background - Why?

    1.2 Formulaic language

    formulaic sequence

    multi-word construction lexical bundlelexical phrase

    multi-word unit

    collocation idiom phrasal verb

    pragmatic routine conventional expression formula

  • Significance Wide coverage both in spoken and written text

    (e.g., Biber et al., 1999; Erman & Warren, 2000; Foster, 2001)

    Use linked to higher assessments on speech and writing tasks (e.g., Hsu & Chiu, 2008; Keshavarz & Salimi, 2007)

    Most (all?) conventional speech acts are realized by families of formulaic language (Schmitt, 2010, p. 120)

    1.2 Formulaic language

  • Challenge for learners slow development

    limited ability to intuit usage norms

    first language-based sequences use which end up inappropriate (Wood, 2015)

    1.2 Formulaic language

  • Application Academic Formulas List (AFL)

    - Core and the top 200 Written and Spoken AFL (Simpson-Vlach & Ellis, 2010)

    PHRASE List - 505 most frequent non-transparent multiword expressions (Martinez & Schmitt, 2011)

    PHAVE List- 150 most frequent phrasal verbs (Garnier & Schmitt, 2015)

    1.2 Formulaic language

  • Direction of this study

    Not learning formulaic language itself, but learning basic vocabulary through formulaic language

    1.2 Formulaic language

  • Why formulaic language?

    You shall know a word by the company it keeps.

    (Firth, 1957, p. 11)

    Learners should learn a word by the company it keeps.

    1.2 Formulaic language

  • Why corpus?

    Corpus data have always played a major part in developing vocabulary materials

    Difficultly in including formulaic sequence into materials

    - which word strings are formulaic

    - which of the many formulae known to native speakers learners most need to learn

    (Jones & Durrant, 2010)

    1.3 TV drama corpus

  • 1.3 TV drama corpus

  • 1.3 TV drama corpus

  • spoken(-like) corpus

    much larger and more recent than other spoken corpora (100 million words)

    search for phrases, grammatical constructions, collocates available

    more words dealing with everyday life and personal relationships than spoken proportion of BNC and COCA (Davies, 2012)

    Why TV drama corpus? Why SOAP?

  • Why TV drama corpus?

    Corpus of you and I and here and now

    Potential as corpus for Elementary level EFL learners

    1.3 TV drama corpus

  • 1.3 TV drama corpus

  • 2. Purpose - What?Developing TV drama corpus-informed supplementary vocabulary materials for elementary-level Japanese EFL learners to help them acquire knowledge of basic English vocabulary through formulaic language

  • 3. Method - How?

    Method

    for

    Materials Development?

  • Simple sequence of materials development (Jolly & Bolitho, 2011)

    1. Identification of need

    2. Exploration of language

    3. Contextual realisation

    5. Physical production

    4. Pedagogical realisation

    6. Use

    7. Evaluation

  • Simple sequence of materials development (Jolly & Bolitho, 2011)

    1. Identification of need

    Students have difficulty understanding the sentence, Its time Prime Minister listened to his critics.

  • Simple sequence of materials development (Jolly & Bolitho, 2011)

    2. Exploration of language

    The teacher consults Practical English Usage (Swan, 2005)for explanations and example sentences.

  • Simple sequence of materials development (Jolly & Bolitho, 2011)

    3. Contextual realisation

    The teacher decides to produce worksheets on Hypothetical Meaning for class use to reinforce actual teaching.

  • Simple sequence of materials development (Jolly & Bolitho, 2011)

    4. Pedagogical realisation

    The teacher decides on contrastive approach (facts vs. hypothesis). The focus is on unspoken meaning and speakers attitude.

  • Simple sequence of materials development (Jolly & Bolitho, 2011)

    5. Physical production

    The worksheet is produced as a Word document, photocopied and distributed to learners.

  • Simple sequence of materials development (Jolly & Bolitho, 2011)

    6. Use

    There is an introduction in class, followed by completion of the worksheet at home and checking in the next class.

  • Simple sequence of materials development (Jolly & Bolitho, 2011)

    7. Evaluation

    Students write comments and difficulties with the worksheet.

  • a variety of optional pathways and feedback loops which make the whole process dynamic and self-regulating

    Jolly & Bolitho (2011)

  • 3.1 Procedure for this study1. Identification of need

    2. Exploration of language

    3. Contextual realisation

    5. Tentative Physical production

    4. Pedagogical realisation

    6. Use (Empirical Study)

    7. Evaluation (Empirical Study)

  • 3.1 Procedure for this study8. Re-exploration of language

    9. Re-contextual realisation

    10. Re-pedagogical realisation

    11. Physical production

  • 1. Identification of need

    Need for sufficient input both in quantity and quality

    Need for more exposure to everyday life English

  • Corpora

    Corpus of American SOAP operas (100 million words)

    2. Exploration of language

    Corpus of American SITCOM (5 million words)

  • Corpus of American SITCOM

    5 million words

    18 titles from 2006 to 2015

    Transcript data from different fansites

  • Corpus of American SITCOM

    18 titles from 2006 to 2015

    The Big Bang Theory (Season 1 ~ 8)

    Modern Family (Season 1 ~ 6)

    Parks and Recreation (Season 2 ~ 6)

    Baby Daddy (Season 1 ~ 4)

    Jessie (Season 1 ~ 2)

    Girl Meets World (Season 1 ~ 2 )

    The Middle (Season 3 ~ 6 )

    Its always sunny in Philadelphia (Season 6 ~ 10 )

  • Corpus of American SITCOM 2 Broke Girls(Season 1 ~ 4)

    Bad Teacher (Season 1)

    Silicon Valley (Season 1 ~ 2)

    Switched at Birth (Season 1 ~ 4)

    Raising Hope (Season 1 ~4 )

    Community (Season 1 ~ 5)

    Happy Endings(Season 1 ~ 3)

    Melissa & Joey (Season 2 ~ 4)

    Mike & Molly (Season 1 ~ 5)

    How I Met Your Mother (Season 6 ~ 9)

  • Base : American SITCOM- produce n-gram list - search for example sentence - search for situation and function

    Reference : American SOAP operas - search for construction- frequency / MI score

    2. Exploration of language

  • 2. Exploration of language

  • Basic vocabulary list: Longman Communication 3000

    Spoken formulas list: SITCOM Corpus

    Formula search: SOAP and SITCOM

    3. Contextual realisation

  • 3. Contextual realisation

    Target Word(Longman 3000)

    Spoken Formulas List

    (SITCOM Corpus)

    Example Formula

    (SOAP and SITCOM)

    Vocabulary Material

  • Basic vocabulary listLongman communication 3000:a list of the 3000 most frequent words in both spoken and written English, based on the 390 million words in the Longman Corpus Network

    (Bullon & Leech, 2007)

    3. Contextual realisation

  • Spoken formulas list: SITCOM Corpus (1) Extract word, 2-gr