THE CAMERALiterally, room in Latin. The instrument with which photographs are taken, consisting, at least, of a light-tight box, a lens which admits focused light, and some device for holding the film in position. In a digital camera, the film is replaced by a light sensitive digital sensor.
LENSLight passing through a lens is inverted. The object photographed is turned upside down on the film or digital sensor. In a SLR camera, a set of mirrors called a pentaprism corrects this inversion.During the exposure, the mirror in the SLR camera body flips up to allows light to pass through to the film or digital sensor.
SINGLE-LENS REFLEX (SLR) CAMERAA single-lens reflex camera shows you the scene directly through the lens by employing a series of mirrors.
CONTROLLING THE AMOUNT OF LIGHTSHUTTERControls the amount of light by the length of time it remains open
APERTURE(size of the lens opening) controls the brightness of light that reaches the filmSTOP refers to a change in exposure, whether the shutter speed or aperture is changedone stop more exposure means to double the light reaching the filmone stop less exposure means to half the light reaching the film
SHUTTERLeaf Shutter Located inside the lensQuieter than a focal-plane shutterSlower shutter speeds than a focal-plane shutter(only up to 1/500 sec.)
SHUTTERFocal Plane ShutterLocated inside the camera body, directly in front of the film planeAllows for faster shutter speeds(1/8000 sec.)When using a flash, must use slower shutter speed
SHUTTER SPEEDSlowerblurred motion
-Each shutter speed is marked as the bottom part of the fraction of a second that the shutter remains open 2 (1/2 second)8 (1/8 second)-Each full stop shutter setting is half or double the time of the next oneB (bulb) shutter stays open as long as the release button is pushed downT (time) opens the shutter with one press of the release, and closes with another*1/60 hand held
SHUTTER SPEED Slow shutter speed Fast shutter speed
SLOW SHUTTER SPEED
FAST SHUTTER SPEED
SHUTTER SPEEDPanning During the exposure, the camera is moved in the same direction as the subject.Resulting in a reasonably sharp subject and a blurred background
APERTUREEach f/stop number can be though of as the bottom part of a fraction
The larger the f/stop number, the smaller the lens openingf/11 is a smaller opening than f/4 Each full stop aperture setting allows half or double the amount of light as the next onef/1.4f/2f/2.8f/4f/5.6f/8f/11f/16f/22
APERTUREThe area from near to far in a scene that is acceptably sharp in a photograph
DEPTH OF FIELDThe smaller the aperture size, the more that a scene will be sharp from near to far (deep depth of field).The larger the aperture size, the less that a scene will be sharp from near to far (shallow depth of field).
f/22 provides more depth of field than f/4
DEPTH OF FIELD
DEPTH OF FIELD
DEPTH OF FIELD Smaller aperture (f/22) Larger aperture (f/4) deep depth of field shallow depth of field
DEPTH OF FIELDShallow Depth of FieldDeep Depth of Field
SHUTTER and APERTURETo get a correctly exposed picture, you need a combination of shutter speed and aperture
Each shutter speed lets in twice as much light as the next faster speed1/60 lets in 2x as much light as 1/125Each aperture setting lets in twice as much light as the next smaller opening (larger-numbered setting)f/4 lets in 2x as much light as f/5.6
EXPOSUREF stop f/22 f/16 f/11 f/8 f/5.6f/4f/2.8shutter speed 1/4 1/8 1/15 1/30 1/601/1251/250
***You know also that our brain is what switches the image to be right side up.************************