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2. Numerical Bases Used in Programming Hexadecimal Binary BCDwww.technogroovy.com, Cell- +91- 3. Hexadecimal Basis Hexadecimal Digits: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F A=10 B=11 C=12 D=13 E=14 F=15 www.technogroovy.com, Cell- +91- 4. Decimal, Binary, BCD, & Hexadecimal Numbers (43)10= (0100 0011)BCD= ( 0010 1011 )2 = (2B)16www.technogroovy.com, Cell- +91- 5. Register s SP A B R0DPTRDPHDPLR1 R2PCPCR3 R4Some 8051 16-bit RegisterR5 R6 R7 Some 8-bitt Registers of the 8051www.technogroovy.com, Cell- +91- 6. Memory mapping in 8051 ROM memory map in 8051 family 4k 0000H8k 0000H0FFFH8751 AT89C511FFFH 8752 AT89C52www.technogroovy.com, Cell- +91- 7. RAM memory space allocation in the 8051 7FH Scratch pad RAM30H 2FH Bit-Addressable RAM 20H 1FHRegister Bank 318H 17HRegister Bank 210H 0FH 08HStack) Register Bank 1)07HRegister Bank 000Hwww.technogroovy.com, Cell- +91- 8. Addressing Modes Register Direct Register Indirect Immediate Relative Absolute Long Indexedwww.technogroovy.com, Cell- +91- 9. Register Addressing Mode MOV Rn, A ;n=0,..,7 ADD A, Rn MOV DPL, R6 MOV DPTR, A MOV Rm, Rnwww.technogroovy.com, Cell- +91- 10. Direct Addressing Mode Although the entire of 128 bytes of RAM can be accessed using direct addressing mode, it is most often used to access RAM loc. 30 7FH. MOV R0, 40H MOV 56H, A MOV A, 4 MOV 6, 2; MOV A, R4 ; copy R2 to R6 ; MOV R6,R2 is invalid !www.technogroovy.com, Cell- +91- 11. Register Indirect Addressing Mode In this mode, register is used as a pointer to the data. MOV A,@Ri ; move content of RAM loc. where address is held by Ri into A ( i=0 or 1 ) MOV@R1,BIn other word, the content of register R0 or R1 is sources or target in MOV, ADD and SUBB insructions. www.technogroovy.com, Cell- +91- 12. Immediate Addressing Mode MOV A,#65H MOV R6,#65H MOV DPTR,#2343H MOV P1,#65Hwww.technogroovy.com, Cell- +91- 13. Relative, Absolute, & Long Addressing Used only with jump and call instructions: SJMP ACALL,AJMP LCALL,LJMPwww.technogroovy.com, Cell- +91- 14. Indexed Addressing Mode This mode is widely used in accessing data elements of look-up table entries located in the program (code) space ROM at the 8051 MOVCA,@A+DPTR (A,@A+PC) A= content of address A +DPTR from ROM Note: Because the data elements are stored in the program (code ) space ROM of the 8051, it uses the instruction MOVC instead of MOV. The C means code. www.technogroovy.com, Cell- +91- 15. Some Simple Instructions MOV dest,source; dest = sourceMOV A,#72H MOV R4,#62H MOV B,0F9H;A=72H ;R4=62H ;B=the content of F9th byte of RAMMOV DPTR,#7634H MOV DPL,#34H MOV DPH,#76H MOV P1,A;mov A to port 1Note 1: MOV A,#72H MOV A,72H After instruction MOV A,72H the content of 72th byte of RAM will replace in Accumulator.Note 2: MOV A,R3MOV A,3 www.technogroovy.com, Cell- +91- 16. ADDA, Source;A=A+SOURCEADDA,#6;A=A+6ADDA,R6;A=A+R6ADDA,6;A=A+[6] or A=A+R6ADDA,0F3H;A=A+[0F3H]SUBBA, Source;A=A-SOURCE-CSUBBA,#6;A=A-6SUBBA,R6;A=A+R6www.technogroovy.com, Cell- +91- 17. MUL & DIV MUL MOV MOV MULAB ;B|A = A*B A,#25H B,#65H AB ;25H*65H=0E99 ;B=0EH, A=99H DIV MOV MOV DIVAB ;A = A/B, B = A mod B A,#25 B,#10 AB ;A=2, B=5 www.technogroovy.com, Cell- +91- 18. SETB bit CLR bit; bit=1 ; bit=0SETB SETB SETB SETB SETB; CY=1 ;bit 0 from port 0 =1 ;bit 7 from port 3 =1 ;bit 2 from ACCUMULATOR =1 ;set high D5 of RAM loc. 20hC P0.0 P3.7 ACC.2 05Note:CLR instruction is as same as SETB i.e.: CLR C ;CY=0 But following instruction is only for CLR: CLR A ;A=0www.technogroovy.com, Cell- +91- 19. DEC INCbyte byte;byte=byte-1 ;byte=byte+1INC DEC DECR7 A 40H; [40]=[40]-1www.technogroovy.com, Cell- +91- 20. RR RL RRC RLC A EXAMPLE: RR A RR: RRC:CRL: RLC:C www.technogroovy.com, Cell- +91- 21. ANL - ORL XRL Bitwise Logical Operations: AND, OR, XOR EXAMPLE: MOV R5,#89H ANL R5,#08HCPLAExample: MOV L01: CPL MOV ACALL SJMP;1s complement A,#55H ;A=01010101 B A P1,A DELAY L01www.technogroovy.com, Cell- +91- 22. Stack in the 8051 The register used to access the stack is called SP (stack pointer) register. The stack pointer in the 8051 is only 8 bits wide, which means that it can take value 00 to FFH. When 8051 powered up, the SP register contains value 07.7FH Scratch pad RAM 30H 2FH Bit-Addressable RAM 20H 1FH 18H 17H 10H 0FH 08H 07H 00Hwww.technogroovy.com, Cell- +91-Register Bank 3 Register Bank 2 Stack) Register Bank 1) Register Bank 0 23. Example: MOV MOV MOV PUSH PUSH PUSHR6,#25H R1,#12H R4,#0F3H 6 1 40BH0BH0BH0BH0AH0AH0AH0AHF309H09H09H1209H1208H08H08H2508H25Start SP=07H25SP=08HSP=09Hwww.technogroovy.com, Cell- +91-SP=08H 24. LOOP and JUMP Instructions Conditional Jumps : JZJump if A=0JNZJump if A/=0DJNZDecrement and jump if A/=0CJNE A,byteJump if A/=byteCJNE reg,#dataJump if byte/=#dataJCJump if CY=1JNCJump if CY=0JBJump if bit=1JNBJump if bit=0JBCJump if bit=1 and clear bitwww.technogroovy.com, Cell- +91- 25. DJNZ: Write a program to clear ACC, then add 3 to the accumulator ten time Solution:AGAIN:MOV MOV ADD DJNZ MOVA,#0 R2,#10 A,#03 R2,AGAIN ;repeat until R2=0 (10 times) R5,Awww.technogroovy.com, Cell- +91- 26. LJMP(long jump) LJMP is an unconditional jump. It is a 3-byte instruction. It allows a jump to any memory location from 0000 to FFFFH. AJMP(absolute jump) In this 2-byte instruction, It allows a jump to any memory location within the 2k block of program memory. SJMP(short jump) In this 2-byte instruction. The relative address range of 00FFH is divided into forward and backward jumps, that is , within -128 to +127 bytes of memory relative to the address of the current PC.www.technogroovy.com, Cell- +91- 27. CALL Instructions Another control transfer instruction is the CALL instruction, which is used to call a subroutine. LCALL(long call) This 3-byte instruction can be used to call subroutines located anywhere within the 64K byte address space of the 8051. ACALL (absolute call) ACALL is 2-byte instruction. the target address of the subroutine must be within 2K byte range. www.technogroovy.com, Cell- +91- 28. Example: Write a program to copy a block of 10 bytes from RAM location starting at 37h to RAM location starting at 59h. Solution: MOV R0,#37h MOV R1,#59h MOV R2,#10 L1: MOV A,@R0 MOV @R1,A INC R0 INC R1 DJNZ R2,L1; source pointer ; dest pointer ; counterwww.technogroovy.com, Cell- +91- 29. Decimal Addition 156 + 248 .100's10's1's.156+248=40416 Bit Addition 1A44 + 22DB = 3D1F .256's16s1's.1A44+22DB=3D1Fwww.technogroovy.com, Cell- +91- 30. Performing the Addition with 8051 .256's1's.R6R7+R4R5R2R3=65536'sR11.Add the low bytes R7 and R5, leave the answer in R3. 2.Add the high bytes R6 and R4, adding any carry from step 1, and leave the answer in R2. 3.Put any carry from step 2 in the final byte, R1.www.technogroovy.com, Cell- +91- 31. Steps 1, 2, 3 MOV A,R7 ;Move the low-byte into the accumulator ADD A,R5 ;Add the second low-byte to the accumulator MOV R3,A ;Move the answer to the low-byte of the result MOV A,R6 ;Move the high-byte into the accumulator ADDC A,R4 ;Add the second high-byte to the accumulator, plus carry. MOV R2,A ;Move the answer to the high-byte of the result MOV A,#00h ;By default, the highest byte will be zero. ADDC A,#00h ;Add zero, plus carry from step 2. MOV R1,A ;Move the answer to the highest byte of the result www.technogroovy.com, Cell- +91- 32. The Whole Program ;Load the first value into R6 and R7 MOV R6,#1Ah MOV R7,#44h ;Load the first value into R4 and R5 MOV R4,#22h MOV R5,#0DBh ;Call the 16-bit addition routine LCALL ADD16_16 ADD16_16: ;Step 1 of the process MOV A,R7 ;Move the low-byte into the accumulator ADD A,R5 ;Add the second low-byte to the accumulator MOV R3,A ;Move the answer to the low-byte of the result ;Step 2 of the process MOV A,R6 ;Move the high-byte into the accumulator ADDC A,R4 ;Add the second high-byte to the accumulator, plus carry. MOV R2,A ;Move the answer to the high-byte of the result ;Step 3 of the process MOV A,#00h ;By default, the highest byte will be zero. ADDC A,#00h ;Add zero, plus carry from step 2. MOV MOV R1,A ;Move the answer to the highest byte of the result ;Return - answer now resides in R1, R2, and R3. RET www.technogroovy.com, Cell- +91- 33. Timer & Port Operations Example: Write a program using Timer0 to create a 10khz square wave on P1.0LOOP:MOV TMOD,#02H MOV TH0,#-50 SETB TR0 JNB TF0, LOOP CLR TF0 CPL P1.0 SJMP LOOP END;8-bit auto-reload mode ;-50 reload value in TH0 ;start timer0 ;wait for overflow ;clear timer0 overflow flag ;toggle port bit ;repeatwww.technogroovy.com, Cell- +91- 34. Interrupts 1. Enabling and Disabling Interrupts 2. Interrupt Priority 3. Writing the ISR (Interrupt Service Routine)www.technogroovy.com, Cell- +91- 35. Interrupt Enable (IE) Register : EA : Global enable/disable. --: Undefined. ET2 :Enable Timer 2 interrupt. ES :Enable Serial port interrupt. ET1 :Enable Timer 1 interrupt. EX1 :Enable External 1 interrupt. ET0 : Enable Timer 0 interrupt. EX0 : Enable External 0 interrupt.www.technogroovy.com, Cell- +91- 36. Interrupt Vectors InterruptVector AddressSystem Reset0000HExternal 00003HTimer 0000BHExternal 10013HTimer 1001BHSerial Port0023HTimer 2002BHwww.technogroovy.com, Cell- +91- 37. Writing the ISR Example: Writing the ISR for Timer0 interruptT0ISR:MAIN:ORG 0000H ;reset LJMP MAIN ORG 000BH ;Timer0 entry point . ;Timer0 ISR begins . RETI ;return to main program . ;main program . . END www.technogroovy.com, Cell- +91- 38. Structure of Assembly language and Running an 8051 program EDITOR PROGRAM Myfile.asm ASSEMBLER PROGRAM Myfile.lstOther obj file Myfile.obj LINKER PROGRAMOH PROGRAM Myfile.hexwww.technogroovy.com, Cell- +91- 39. Examples of Our Program Instructions MOV C,P1.4 JC LINE1 SETB P1.0 CLR P1.2www.technogroovy.com, Cell- +91- 40. 8051 Instruction Set ACALL: Absolute CallJC: Jump if Carry SetPUSH: Push Value Onto StackADD, ADDC: Add Acc. (With Carry)JMP: Jump to AddressRET: Return From SubroutineAJMP: Absolute JumpJNB: Jump if Bit Not SetRETI: Return From InterruptANL: Bitwise A