What does learner autonomy facilitate?
blended & Online language learning conceptsObjectivesUnderstand BYU Independent Study and BYU Online language course modelsExplore benefits of synchronous and asynchronous interactionsExplore elements of independent, collaborative, and apprenticeship-focused learning environments
EducationBYU: EnglishUniv. of Wisconsin: French & International Education BYU: IP&T Second Lang. AcquisitionProfessionalTeaching abroad and in U.S.Administrator of charter schoolInstructional designer of world language coursesAcademic consultant for BYU Online, humanities, business, nursing, Kennedy Center
Gagns Instructional EventInternal Mental Process1. Gain attentionStimuli activates receptors2. Inform learners of objectivesCreates level of expectation for learning3. Stimulate recall of prior learningRetrieval and activation of short-term memory4. Present the contentSelective perception of content5. Provide "learning guidance"Semantic encoding for storage long-term memory6. Elicit performance (practice)Responds to questions to enhance encoding and verification7. Provide feedbackReinforcement and assessment of correct performance8. Assess performanceRetrieval and reinforcement of content as final evaluation9. Enhance retention and transfer to the jobRetrieval and generalization of learned skill to new situation
What are some elements of cognitive apprenticeship that could mesh with Gagnes 9 events?
BYU World LanguagesSince 1920s>200 university courses online, self-paced 12 months to complete; collaborative element to all language courses~50 online courses for BYU students, semester based10 languages: FREN, SPAN, GERM, KOREA, CHIN, JAPAN, ASL, ARAB, RUSS, LATIN
>50 languages regularly, +30 languages70% of students speak a second language 6% of student body from outside the U. S, representing >110 countries
BYU Independent Study
BYU OnlineSemester-based, available only to day students
BlendedFully OnlineContent deliveryPrimarily in class; may be accessed onlineOnlinePractice exercises, mastery quizzesOnlineOnlineAssessmentIn-class or online (1:1)Online (1:1)Feedback and remediationIn-class and onlineOnlineHours spent on materialReduced classroom time is spent online insteadOnlineCollaboration/interactionIn-class, discussion boards, Conversation Caf Webinars, discussion boards, Conversation Caf
The human touchSynchronousspontaneousephemeralpeer influencepassionpreferredAsynchronousreflectivepermanent< intimidatingreason> rigor
When to incorporate F2F or online learning?Things to consider when designing learning activities in blended environment.Few definitive studies re how to blend synchronous and asynchronous.This is what we are reasonably sure of. This influenced, however, by discipline, level of instruction and contextual constraints.Note Katrina Meyers research.
Examples:F2F better to get started and organizedF2F is can generate energy, motivationOnline better to discuss, resolve more complex tasks and abstract ideas Online provides sustained engagement, convenience
What does learner autonomy facilitate?Self-paced structureFocus on the unique needs of the learnerFinding ones own path; self-directed learning as a life skill(John Dewey self-directed learning theories)
What does collaboration facilitate?Dialogue & discussion Group problem-solvingDevelopment of social knowledgeStructure/control to the path
What does apprenticeship facilitate?Development of strategic knowledgeScaffolded and sequenced instruction structureReal-world application
Successes and failuresKorean blended studyStudents complained about decreased instructor interactionTime spent on material was lower Student scores showed no significant difference over 4 semestersInstructor ratings were the same or higherGerman blended study202 pre-test scores improved Students revisited practice material an average of 3 timesStudents produced improved journal entriesTechnology and course refinement bogged down development
Independent Study and BYU Online language course modelsBenefits of synchronous and asynchronous interactionsIndependent, collaborative, and apprenticeship-focused environments