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AWADHI CUISINE 1 SUNIL KUMAR DESINGED BY Sunil Kumar Research Scholar/ Food Production Faculty Institute of Hotel and Tourism Management, MAHARSHI DAYANAND UNIVERSITY, ROHTAK Haryana- 124001 INDIA Ph. No. 09996000499 email: [email protected] , [email protected] linkedin:- in.linkedin.com/in/ihmsunilkumar facebook: www.facebook.com/ihmsunilkumar

Awadhi Cuisine

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  • 1. AWADHI CUISINE DESINGED BYSunil Kumar Research Scholar/ Food Production Faculty Institute of Hotel and Tourism Management, MAHARSHI DAYANAND UNIVERSITY, ROHTAK Haryana- 124001 INDIA Ph. No. 09996000499 email: [email protected] , [email protected] linkedin:- in.linkedin.com/in/ihmsunilkumar facebook: www.facebook.com/ihmsunilkumar webpage: chefsunilkumar.tripod.com SUNIL KUMAR1

2. HISTORY THE VERY MENTION OF LUCKNOW, WHICH WAS THE SEAT OF AWADH CULTURE, BRINGS TO MIND THE TRADITION OF PEHLE AAP (AFTER YOU), THE LANGUAGE DRIPPING WITH POLITENESS AND THE LIFESTYLE OF THE NAWABS. BUT WHAT APPEALS THE MOST IS THE CUISINE OF AWADH, WHICH IN SOME WAYS , WAS A CULMINATION OF ALL THAT WAS BEST IN ART, CULTURE AND SCIENCE. SUNIL KUMAR2 3. THE ERSTWHILE PROVINCE OF AWADH WAS FAMOUS FOR ITS STANDARDS OF GASTRONOMIC ETIQUETTE. THIS CULTURE IS STILL FOUND PRESERVED IN THE SANCTORUM OF THE ERSTWHILE LANDED ARISTOCRACY OF LUCKNOW AND A FEW ADJOINING DISTRICTS, THAT FORMED PART OF AWADH ; AND OF COURSE THE FAMOUS BAWARCHIS WHO, WITH TREMENDOUS DISCIPLINE, BORDERING ON RELIGIOUS FERVOR, STILL FOLLOW THE TRADITIONAL STYLE OF COOKING HANDED DOWN TO THEM BY THEIR ANCESTORS. SUNIL KUMAR3 4. TRADITIONS AND CUSTOMS TEHZEEB-O-ADAB: ETIQUETTES THE COLLECTIVE NAME FOR FOODS SELECTED FOR FEASTS AT HOME OR SENT OUT IS TORA. IT CONSISTS OF PULAU, MUZAFAR, MUTANJAN, SHIRMAL, SAFAIDA, SHIR BRANJ, SHAMI KEBABS ALONG WITH MURRABBA, ACHAR, AND CHUTNEYS. DASTARKHAWNSUNIL KUMAR4 5. RAMZAN: THIS IS THE MONTH THAT THE MUSLIMS FAST; NOT EVEN WATER IS DRUNK DURING THE DAY. EARLY MORNING FOOD IS EATEN AND THEN IN THE EVENING THE FAST IS BROKEN. ( SAHERI AND IFTARI) SUNIL KUMAR 5 6. FATIAH: THIS IS THE SERVICE DONE AFTER A PERSONS DEATHSUNIL KUMAR6 7. THE HINDU INFLUENCE HALWAIS THE STANDARDS OF THE MUSLIM CHEFS ARE HIGHER, AND THE HINDU HALWAIS PLAY AN IMPORTANT PART WHEN THE DESSERTS HAVE TO BE PREPARED FOR THE MASSES HINDU CONFECTIONERS ARE ON THE WHOLE MUCH BETTER AND MORE POPULAR THAN MUSLIMS, AND THE PEOPLE WHO REALLY APPRECIATE SWEETS ARE THE HINDUS. POSSIBLY BECAUSE MUSLIMS ARE MEAT-EATERS, THEY PREFER FOOD CONTAINING SALT. HINDUS ON THE OTHER HAND PREFER A SWEET TASTE. SUNIL KUMAR 7 8. SEASONAL CHANGES EFFECTING FOOD SPRING: A SEASON OF REJUVENATION, OF EXULTATION AND FESTIVITY; A GARB OF YELLOW AT VASANT; ZARDA PULAO IS EATEN DURING THIS PERIOD, SUMMERS: COOLANTS SUCH AS AAM KA PANNA, SHIKANJVI AND LASSI ARE HAD AS A PART OF A DAILY MEAL. FRUITS SUCH AS MANGO, MELONS, WATER MELONS ARE ALSO CONSUMED IN GREAT QUANTITIES. CHUTNEYS, MURRABBAS AND ACHARS ARE MADE IN GREAT QUANTITIES. LOTS OF RAITAS ARE ALSO HAD WINTERS: FOOD THAT HAS A WARM 8 SUNIL KUMAR TASEER ARE HAD IN THE WINTERS 9. IN WINTERS THE WOMEN FOLK SIT IN THE CENTRAL COURTYARD OF THE HOUSE, GOSSIP AND MAKE PICKLE WINTER VEGETABLES IN GREAT QUANTITIES.SUNIL KUMAR9 10. OUR AIM IN THIS GASTRONOMIC JOURNEY IS TO INTRODUCE THE CHARACTERISTIC TASTES AND FLAVORS OF THIS REGION WITH THE HOPE THAT THE AUTHENTIC DISHES FROM AWADH WILL BE RE-CREATED IN THE KITCHEN . SUNIL KUMAR10 11. THE STORY OF AWADH CUISINE WOULD NOT BE COMPLETE IF THE VARIOUS SYSTEMS AND METHODS OF COOKING WERE NOT DESCRIBED. SOME OF THEM UNIQUE TO AWADH REGION. SUNIL KUMAR11 12. METHODS OF COOKINGSUNIL KUMAR12 13. BAGHAR THIS IS A METHOD OF TEMPERING A DISH WITH HOT OIL/GHEE AND SPICES. IT MAY BE DONE EITHER AT THE BEGINNING OF COOKING OF A DISH, AS IN CURRIES, OR AT THE END AS IN THE COOKING OF DALS. IN THE FORMER CASE THE FAT IS HEATED IN A VESSEL TO A SMOKING POINT AND AFTER REDUCING THE FLAME, SPICES ARE ADDED TO IT. WHEN THEY BEGIN TO CRACKLE, THE RAW INGREDIENTS ARE ADDED AND FURTHER COOKED. IN THE LATTER CASE THE SAME PROCESS IS CARRIED OUT IN A LADLE WHICH IS IMMERSED IN A COOKED KUMAR AND IMMEDIATELY13 SUNIL DISH COVERED WITH A LID, 14. DHUNGER THIS IS A QUICK SMOKE PROCEDURE USED TO FLAVOR A MEAT DISH, DALS OR EVEN RAITA. THE SMOKE VERY EFFECTIVELY PERMEATES EVERY GRAIN OF THE INGREDIENT AND IMPARTS A SUBTLE AROMA WHICH ENHANCES THE QUALITY OF THE DISH.THE PROCEDURE MAY BE CARRIED OUT EITHER AT THE INTERMEDIATE STAGE OR AT THE FINAL STAGE OF COOKING . THIS IS A COMMON TECHNIQUE EMPLOYED WHILE MAKING KEBABS. SUNIL KUMAR14 15. DUM DENA THIS IS THE FREQUENTLY USED METHOD USED IN AWADH COOKING. DUM LITERALLY MEANS BREATH AND THE PROCESS INVOLVES PLACING THE SEMI-COOKED INGREDIENTS IN A POT, SEALING THE UTENSIL WITH A FLOUR DOUGH AND APPLYING VERY SLOW CHARCOAL FIRE ON TOP,BY PLACING LIVE CHARCOAL ON THE LID, AND SOME FROM BELOW.. THIS METHOD IS FOLLOWED FOR A NUMBER OF DELICACIES SUCH AS PULAO AND BIRYANI. ANY DISH COOKED BY THIS METHOD IS DUM PUKHT OR DUM SUNIL KUMAR BAKHT. 15 16. GALAVATTHIS REFERS TO THE USE OF SOFTENING AGENTS SUCH AS PAPAIN (FROM RAW PAPAYA) OR KALMI SHORA (KNO3) TO TENDERISE MEAT.SUNIL KUMAR16 17. GHEE DURUST KARNA THIS IS A VITAL STEP IN COOKING ALMOST ANY AWADHI DISH. IT IS ESSENTIALLY THE TEMPERING OR SEASONING OF THE COOKING MEDIUM. THIS IS IMPORTANT TO REMOVE THE RAW FLAVOR OF THE GHEE OR OIL AND FLAVOR IT WITH KEVRA, CARDAMOMS. THE METHOD IS AS FOLLOWS : HEAT 500GM OF GHEE OR OIL TO A SMOKING POINT THEN REDUCE THE HEAT AND SPRINKLE 1 TBSP KEWRAWATER AND ADD 6 GREEN CARDAMOMS AND STIR TILL THE WATER EVAPORATES AND THE GHEE GIVES A PLEASANT AROMA. REMOVE FROM THE FIRE, STRAINSUNIL KUMAR THROUGH A MUSLIN CLOTH17 AND KEEP FOR FURTHER USE. 18. LOABIS A TERM WHICH REFERS TO THE FINAL STAGE IN COOKING WHEN THE OIL USED DURING COOKING RISES TO THE SURFACE, GIVING THE DISH A FINISHED APPEARANCE. THIS OCCURS WHEN SLOW COOKING OF GRAVY DISHES IS INVOLVED.SUNIL KUMAR18 19. MOIN IT IS THE SHORTENING OF DOUGH. IN THIS PROCESS FAT IS RUBBED INTO THE FLOUR AND MADE INTO A DOUGH FOR KACHORIS OR POORIS OR PARATHAS. THIS MAKES THE FINAL PRODUCT CRISP AND FLAKY AND CRUMBLY. SUNIL KUMAR19 20. TASEER: THIS IS THE EFFECT OF FOOD ON THE HUMAN BODY UPON CONSUMPTION. THE FOODS CAN THEREFORE BE CLASSIFIED AS HAVING A GARAM TASEER (WARMING EFFECT) OR A THANDI TASEER( COOLING EFFECT) MOST FOODS HAVING A GARAM TASEER ARE CONSIDERED APRODISIAC IN NATURE AND ARE MAINLY CONSUMED IN WINTERS. FOODS THAT COOL THE BODY , OR HAVE A THANDI TASEER ARE MAINLY CONSUMED IN SUMMERS. SUNIL KUMAR20 21. METHOD OF PREPARING LIQUID REFRESHMENT(ABDAR KHANA, ) . RED CLOTH, WHICH WAS KEPT DAMP,WAS TIED ROUND THE PITCHER OR DRINKING VESSEL IN ORDER TO COOL IT BY THE WIND. THE HOTTER THE WIND, THE COLDER IT MADE THE CLOTH, WHICH IN TURN REDUCED THE TEMPERATURE OF THE WATER INSIDE THE RECEPTACLES. OFTEN CLOTH WAS TIED ON THE MOUTHS OF GOBLETS, PICTURES AND EVEN JARS WHICH WERE THEN HUNG UPSIDE DOWN FROM THE BRANCHES OF TREES AS THEY WERE COMPLETELY SEALED THE WATER DID NOT SPILL OUT AND THEY BECAME BEAUTIFULLY COLD. IN THE RAINY SEASON, EARTHENWARE JARS WERE HUNG INSIDE A HALL. SUNIL KUMAR21 22. JHALNA PITCHER PULLING. AN ELABORATE PRACTICE WAS TO IMMERSE SMALL PICTURES IN A LARGE EARTHENWARE VESSEL FILLED WITH BRACKISH WATER AND THEN SPIN THEM ROUND AND ROUND. IN A SHORT TIME THE WATER IN THE PITCHERS BECAME AS COLD AS ICESUNIL KUMAR22 23. INGREDIENTS ALLSPICE ( KEBAB CHINI): USED WHOLE OR GROUND. BERRIES SMELL LIKE THE BLEND OF CINNAMMON, CLOVES AND NUTMEG. ANISE( SAUNF): LIQUORICE -LIKE FLAVOR, USED IN VEGETABLES, BREADS AND DESSERTS ASAFOETIDA( HING): RESINOUS GUM OF A TREE, USED IN BAGHARS BAY LEAF( TEJ PATTA): USED IN BAGHARS AND CURRIES BLACK PEPPERCORNS( KALI MIRCH): USED IN MEAT, SOME FISH AND VEGETABLE DISHES, USED WHOLE OR GROUND AND UPLIFTS THE SIMPLEST OF DISHESSUNIL KUMAR23 24. CARAWAY SEEDS( KALA OR SHAHI JEERA): SUBTLE FLAVOUR, USED IN MEAT AND RICE DISHES CARDAMOM: 2 VARIETIES GREEN CARDAMOM( HARI ELAICHI) : HAS A COOL SCENTED FLAVOUR, USED IN CURRIES AS WELL ASDESSERTS BROWN CARDAMOM( BARI ELAICHI); USED WITH SAVOURY SUNIL 24 FOODS KUMAR 25. CHILLIES GREEN CHILLIES: ADD A SPICY FLAVOUR RED CHILLIES: HOTTEST YELLOW CHILLIES: THE GROUND SEEDS OF THE DRIED RED CHILLIES CINNAMON( DALCHINI): GENTLE, SWEET, MUSKY FLAVOUR; USED IN BOTH SWEET AND SAVOURY PREPARATIONS CLOVES(LAUNG): HARD, DRIED, POWERFUL AROMA AND SWEET TANGY FLAVOUR; USED IN FISH MEAT, VEGETABLE OR PULSES; ALSO USED TO GIVE DHUNGAR SUNIL KUMAR25 26. CORIANDER LEAVES( DHANIA PATTA): USED FOR GARNISHING OR TO MAKE CHUTNEYS CORIANDER SEEDS( DHANIA): MILD, SWEET, PUNGENT FLAVOUR; USED FOR THE AROMA; POWDER GIVES THE DISH MORE FLAVOUR AND BODY CUMIN( JEERA); STRONG FLAVOUR AND AROMA; USED IN BAGHARS; CAN BE USED RAW, DRY-ROASTED, WHOLE OR POWDERED FENUGREEK: METHI DANA SUNIL KUMAR26 27. UTENSILS AND EQUIPMENT USEDSUNIL KUMAR27 28. BHAGONA OR PATILI IS GENERALLY A BRASS ONE. IT COMES WITH A LID. IT IS USED WHEN GREAT DEAL OF BHUN-NA OR SAUTE IS REQUIRED, OR EVEN BOILING AND SIMMERING. ITIS ALSO REQUIRED FOR YAKHNI OR SALAN, KORMA OR KALIYA.SUNIL KUMAR28 29. SUNIL KUMAR29 30. DEG/ DEGCHI IT IS A PEAR SHAPED POT WITH A LID MADE OF BRASS, COPPER OR ALUMINIUM. THE SHAPE OF THIS UTENSIL IS IDEALLY SUITED FOR THE DUM METHOD. IT IS USED FOR COOKING PULAO, BIRYANI, NEHARI ETC.SUNIL KUMAR30 31. KADHAI IT IS A DEEP, CONCAVE UTENSIL MADE OF BRASS, IRON OR ALUMINIUM AND IS USED FOR DEEP FRYING.SUNIL KUMAR31 32. LAGAN IT IS A ROUND AND SHALLOW COPPER UTENSIL WITH A SLIGHTLY CONCAVE BOTTOM. USED FOR COOKING WHOLE OR BIG CUTS OF MEAT OR POULTRY ESPECIALLY WHEN HEAT IS APPLIED FROM BOTH TOP AND BOTTOM. SUNIL KUMAR32 33. LOHE KA TANDOORIT IS AN IRON TANDOOR, AS DITINCT FROM THE CLAY TANDOOR MORE COMMON IN DELHI. IT IS A KIND OF DOME-SHAPED IRON OVEN USED FOR MAKING MOST OF THE BREADS SUCH AS THE SHEERMAL, TAFTAN, BAKARKHANI ETC.SUNIL KUMAR33 34. MAHI TAWAIT IS THE AWADH VERSION OF THE GRIDDLE SHAPED LIKE ABIG ROUND, FLAT BOTTOMED TRAY WITH RAISED EDGES, IT IS USED FOR COOKING KABABS. ALSO USED FOR DISHES WHERE HEAT IS APPLIED FROM BOTH ENDS, WHEN COVERED. SUNIL KUMAR34 35. SEENI IT IS A BIG THALI OR ROUND TRAY USUALLY USED AS A LID FOR THE LAGAN OR MAHI TAWA WHEN HEAT IS TO BE APPLIED FROM THE TOP. LIVE CHARCOAL IS PLACED ON IT AND HEAT IS TRANSMITTED THROUGH IT TO THE FOOD. THUS THE INDIRECT HEAT HAS THE DESIRED EFFECT OF BROWNING AND COOKING THE INGREDIENTS. SUNIL KUMAR35 36. SURAHI (EARTHENWARE PITCHERS), ABKHORAS (EARTHENWARE DRINKING VESSELS)SUNIL KUMAR36 37. ALL THE COPPER AND BRASS UTENSILS ARE ALMOST ALWAYS USED AFTER KALAI OR TIN-PLATING THE INSIDES.SUNIL KUMAR37 38. DELICACIESSUNIL KUMAR38 39. KEBABS GALAVAT KE KABAB GOLA KABAB(GRILLED MINCED MEAT BALL KABAB) SHAMI KABAB KAKORI KEBABS GULNAAR KEBABS: KEBAB OF CHICKEN FLAVOURED WITH TOMATOES AND SPICES, GARNISHED WITH ROSE PETALS: COOKED IN A SHALLOW PAN SUNIL KUMAR 39 40. NON- VEGETARIAN DELIGHTS NAHARI MURG WAJID ALI -SAFFRON FLAVOURED CHICKEN BREASTS DONE IN RICH ALMOND BASED GRAVY. MURG MUSSALLAM KUNDAN KALIYA NARGISI KOFTA SUNIL KUMAR40 41. MURG KORMA PISTEY KA SAALAN MURG-DO-PYAZA ZAMIN DOZ: WHOLE FISH STUFFED WITH SPICES, SEALED IN AN EARTHENWARE CASE, BURIED IN THE GROUND AND COOKED BY PLACING COW DUNG CAKES ON THE GROUND ABOVE. SUNIL KUMAR41 42. VEGETARIAN DELIGHTS GOBHI MUSSALLAM DHINGRI SHABNAM MASALEDAAR BHARWAAN BHINDEE NIMONA: STRICTLY HOME FARESUNIL KUMAR42 43. PULAOS AND BIRYANIS SHAH JAHANI PULAO DEGI BIRYANI DURING THE DAYS OF THE EAST INDIA COMPANY, WHEN THE NAWABS OF AWADH TOURED THEIR KINGDOMS, DEGI BIRYANI FOUND MUCH FAVOUR WITH THEM. IT IS HIGHLY NUTRITIOUS AND IS MADE FROM MARINATED LAMB CHOPS AND RICE WITH SUBTLE BLENDING OF CURD AND SPICES, DECORATED SUNIL KUMAR 43 WITH SILVER LEAVES. 44. LUCKNOWI BIRYANI: DUM PUKHT METHOD OF COOKING IS USED IN THE PREPARATION OF THIS LAMB AND RICE PREPARARTION YAKHNI PULAO SUNIL KUMAR44 45. BREADS NAANS VARQI PARANTHA JALEBI PARANTHA GILAFI KULCHA SHEERMAL TAFTAN ROOMALI ROTI BAKHARKHANI SUNIL KUMAR45 46. DESSERTSLAUKI KI KHEER CHAWAL KI KHEER FIRNIV SHAHI TUKRE SHEER BRANJ BALAI KE TUKDE SHAKRAMBA: SOOJI AND RAW MANGO KHEER MUTANJAN A SPICED MEAT, SUGAR AND RICE PREPARATION SAFAIDA, KUMAR SUNIL A SIMPLE, SWEET RICE 46 DISH 47. JALEBIS(ZALEBIA IN ARABIC), SWEETS FORMED IN A SPIRAL, GLAZED WITH A SYRUP IMERTIS, THICK SWEETS WITH SYRUP BALU SHAHIS, MOIST, ROUND SYRUPY SWEETS PERA TAR HALWA, A SWEET MADE WITH CLARIFIED BUTTER, AND EATEN WITH PURIS, IS PURELY HINDUSUNIL KUMAR47 48. HALWA SOHAN, PAPRI, HARD AND DRY MALAI PAAN, DUDHIA, LIKE A THICK MILK JELLY BARFI, DRY, WHITE AND SOFT SHOWS THAT IT ORIGINATED IN PERSIA KHURME, HARD FOLDED PANCAKES SUNIL KUMAR48 49. GULAB JAMUN, SOFT, SYRUPY CROQUETTES JAUZI HALWA WHOLE WHEAT HALWASUNIL KUMAR49 50. OUR TRIP TO LUCKNOWSUNIL KUMAR50 51. SUNIL KUMAR51 52. SUNIL KUMAR52 53. SUNIL KUMAR53 54. SUNIL KUMAR54 55. The famous imaam baraSUNIL KUMAR55 56. SUNIL KUMAR56 57. SUNIL KUMAR57 58. SUNIL KUMAR58 59. SUNIL KUMAR59 60. SUNIL KUMAR60 61. SUNIL KUMAR61 62. SUNIL KUMAR62 63. SUNIL KUMAR63 64. SUNIL KUMAR64 65. SUNIL KUMAR65 66. SUNIL KUMAR66 67. SUNIL KUMAR67 68. SUNIL KUMAR68 69. An assorted bread platterSUNIL KUMAR69 70. SUNIL KUMAR70 71. SUNIL KUMAR71 72. SUNIL KUMAR72 73. SUNIL KUMAR73 74. SUNIL KUMAR74 75. SUNIL KUMAR75 76. SUNIL KUMAR76 77. SUNIL KUMAR77 78. SUNIL KUMAR78 79. SUNIL KUMAR79